Young People’s Development from Birth to 19 Years

Published: 2021-09-14 20:50:09
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Startle reflex- when babies hear a sudden sound or see a bright light, they move their arms outwards, and clenching their fists Walking and standing- when babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface, they usually make stepping movements Falling reflex- babies will stretch out arms suddenly and clasp inwards if they feel they are falling Babies start to develop strong bonds with primary carers Baby stares at mother when feeding 1 month; Maybe appearing less curled up and more relaxed, starting to settle into a pattern. Sleeping a lot but gradually starting to spend more time awake Cry to communicate
Babies learning about parents or carers, may stop crying when they hear their soothing voices Babies may stop crying when picked up, but start crying when put down Relaxing at bath time and when nappies are changed Fleeting smiles when babies are asleep Coos when babies are content 3 months; Babies at 3 months are growing in height and weight Some babies may have learned the difference between day and night and are able to sleep through the night Babies are crying less , sleeping less during the day and being more alert Smiling quite often, and bodies are developing; lifting head up and look about when they are put on their tummies
Excitement when it is time to be fed Interested in their fingers and toes Smiling back when they are seeing a smiling face Starting to notice objects and mobiles around them 6 months; Babies at 6 months are learning and have learned many skills, they are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing and show it by smiling and squealing. They can now reach out and grab a toy and move it from one hand to another. They are exploring objects and materials they find interesting. Babies will start to try and communicate with you. They enjoy their food and may try to feed themselves by grabbing a spoon.
They might be getting their first teeth so will be chewing on different objects. Babies are getting stronger, they can sit up with support and are able to roll over. They can push themselves up with their hands if they lie on their fronts. Enjoyment when simple games/songs are repeated Arms lifting to show a parent or carer they want to be picked up Curiosity as babies are looking to see what is happening Babbling and laughing , and different cries according to whether the baby is tired, bored or hungry 9 months; Trying to stay near their parent or carer Strings of babbling
Using fingers to feed Exploring objects using hands and mouth Passing objects from one hand to another Reaching over to pick up an object Crawling or rolling Sitting up with no support They are learning what some key words mean, they may get excited when they hear words like drink and dinner. 1 year; Standing up and holding onto furniture Waving goodbye and hello Fingers pointing to objects to draw an adults attention to them Tuneful babbling that sounds like talking Small objects being picked up and handled Repetitive play as the babies enjoy doing something over and over again
Babies start to recognise routines of the day, for example, becoming excited when they hear the bath water being put on or have bibs on. Babies are able to feed themselves with their fingers 18 months; Children are walking up and down stairs with adult help Less babbling and more recognisable words, for example ‘no’, ‘come’, ‘go’, ‘drink’, ‘bye’ etc.. Signs of temper and frustration Eagerness for independence- trying to feed themselves with a spoon Enjoyment of pop up and posting toys Sitting and pushing off with their legs on sit and ride toys Determines to try things by themselves Interest in other children
Awareness of where their parents are and what they are doing 2 years; Enjoying songs and dancing to music Pointing to pictures of familiar objects and naming them Anger and frustration if they cannot do what they want to do Delight and happiness when they are enjoying something Keen to show things to adults Playing on sit and ride toys Running and climbing Building with bricks, doing simple jigsaw puzzles Some children moving out of nappies Likely to have around two hundred words in their vocabulary Starting to enjoy pretend play, taking an empty cup and drinking from it or giving a teddy a hug They are showing individuality
They know what they want to do, touch and hold They can move confidently and enjoy doing things for themselves ‘Terrible twos’- frustration 2 1/2 years; Still keen to be independent, and they may find it hard to wait and understand why they cannot always have what they see or do what they want. Language is starting to develop more quickly, and some children are starting to use sentences while others are putting two words together to express ideas Children’s developing physical skills combined with their determination can mean they will go to extremes to get hold of an object, ie; standing on tables, moving chairs etc..
Playing more with other children of their own age, or playing alongside others Pretend playing and play with small words becomes popular, along with tricycles, slides and climbing frames Still wanting adult attention and enjoy snuggling up for cuddles, and helping adults Separation from parents can still be difficult unless they know who they are staying with Toilet training may start, and with the children who are ready, they can be out of nappies within a few days Copying other children’s actions Turning pages in books and pointing out objects 3 years; Able to use the toilet Enjoy dressing up and playing with small world toys
Keen to help and copy adults Interested in other children and some co-operative play Able to walk on alternate feet Interested in mark making, painting and books Enjoyment in sand and water play Speech that adults who do not know the child can understand 4 years; Children who are settled into a routine of a setting are able to separate from their parents easily Co-operative play between children along with squabbles and arguments Responding well to adult praise and recognition Seeking out particular playmates Asking questions and enjoying talking Speech and pretend play that models adult life
Riding on tricycles, climbing and enjoying simple ball games Drawings that have meaning for the child and are recognisable Skilful use of the hands to do activities such as threading, pouring and using scissors Concentration when an activity has caught their interest Enjoy singing and knowing some nursery rhymes 5-6 years; Enjoyment of jokes Beginning to work out some words they see often Keen to understand and use rules, for example that the child has to wait for his or her turn Some friendship preferences Ability to kick and control a ball Better formed handwriting and increased fine manipulative movements 7-9 years;
Clear differences in play activities that interest boys and girls Co-operative play with children having stable friendships Verbal arguments, persuasion and negotiation Telling jokes and enjoying chatting Play that involves turn taking Enjoyment of playing and making up games with rules Understanding of rules and consequences Children who tell others the rules and are keen to point out when the rules have been broken Skilful, precise and confident hand movements, for example detailed drawing, colouring and making models Co-ordinated physical moments including aiming and throwing a ball Beginning to read books silently
Writing short stories and text with less adult help required Painting, drawing and making models independently Enjoyment of stories, imaginative play and small world play 9-11 years; Detailed and representational pictures where children enjoy drawing Stories and writing that shows imagination well Problem solving Strong and consistent play preferences Enthusiasm when given areas of responsibility 11-13 years Enjoyment when with their friends Growth and changes to their bodies More confidence around the hoe and in familiar situations Arguments with the parents as children start to become independent
Times when children are frown up and times when they enjoy ‘childish’ activities, for example; sitting on a swing, watching cartoons, playing games 13-16 years; Confidence and enjoyment when with friends Thoughts and ideas that are different to their parents Uncertainty about themselves High level of skill in some subjects; for example drawing and painting, using computers Mood swings 16-19 years; Adulthood Choices to make with regards to future/ colleges Stress with school, GCSES Big fall outs with family Getting peer pressured to have a boyfriend and do drugs, alcohol, sex etc.. Mood swings

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