Dalandan Distribution – Found throughout the Philippines, nearly always planted. – Found in all warm countries. – Native of the Old World. Properties • Aperitif, aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent, mildly carminative, cholagogue, antibacterial, antiemetic, antifungal, antispasmodic, antitussive, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, stimulant, vermifuge. • Dried rind is considered aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent, and mildly carminative. • Citrus flavonoids have potential antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory activity, and cholesterol lowering potential.
Parts used Flowers, fruit and rind. Uses Nutrition / Culinary – A good source of vitamin C. – Rich in flavonoids. – Dried flowers is a pleasant flavoring agent. – Condiment, fruit, oil. – Peel used for making marmalades and candies. – Flowers used for scenting tea. – Essential oil from the dried fruit used as food flavoring. – Fruit rind used for baking flavors. – In Iran, the orange peel used as flavoring for boiled rice and other vegetables. – Fruit is used for making sauces, creams, jelly, honey, etc. Folkloric – Juice is a cooling drink, and used as food, particularly for the febrile and scorbutic. – In the Philippines, the leaves, peel, and flowers are used as stomachic and antiscorbutic. – Decoction of rind taken for gas pains. Decoction of peel also used as emmenagogue. – Leaves are applied to reduce swelling in the legs. Also used as tonic, pectorals and in bronchitis. – For nausea and fainting, squeeze rind near nostril for irritant inhalation. – Dried flowers used as stimulant and preventive for dysentery. Flowers used as antispasmodic. – Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian. – Dried rind is used as tonic dyspepsia and for general debility; also used to check vomiting. – Fresh rind is rubbed on the face for acne or eczema.
– Juice used with salt as a ringworm remedy. – Water distilled from the orange flowers used as stimulant, and as a refreshing drink in nervousness and hysterical cases. – Used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant – In traditional Chinese medicine, Zhi shi, the immature dried fruit of citrus aurantium, has been used to treat chest congestion and stimulate gastrointestinal functions. Peel of immature fruit used for indigestion, abdominal pains, constipation, and dysenteric diarrhea. – Bitter orange seeds or pips, first torrefied to remove the husks, taken as a stimulating remedy. – Oil from the rind is used internally and externally, as a stimulating liniment, for gout and rheumatism. – In Mexico and South America, leaf used as tonic, laxative, sedative; peel used for stomach aches and high blood pressure. – Basque in Europe used the leaves for stomachaches, insomnia and palpitations. Others
– In India, neroli oil, mixed with vaseline, for leech prevention. – In recent years, Citrus aurantium supplements has been promoted for appetite control. – Perfumery: Oil distilled from flowers used in perfumery.
– Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.
Eucalyptus Distribution – Usually planted as a garden plant in Baguio and Manila. – Grows vigorously in the Baguio area. – Native to Australia. – Also in North and South Africa, India, and southern Europe. Properties • Oils are in classified into: (1) medicinal, containing eucalytol or cineol (2) industrial, containing terpenes, used in mining operations, and (3) aromatic, as in E. citriodora. • Considered anesthetic, antibronchitic, antiseptic, anticatarrh, antiparasitic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antiviral, cooling, antiinflammatory, diuretic, febrifuge, rubefacient, analgesic, insect repellent, sedative, expectorant, stimulant. Parts used
Mature leaves, oil.
Uses Edibility – Blue gum leaves used as therapeutic herbal tea. Folkloric – As antiseptic and deodorant, leaves are crushed and applied on affected areas. – Decoction of leaves as tea for cough, asthma, hoarseness, fevers. – Pure eucalyptus oil, two drops in a tsp of warm water, for coughs, whooping coughs, asthma and bronchitis. – Infusion of leaves used for asthma, catarrh, bronchitis, whooping cough, coryza, dysentery, diabetes, fevers and colds, malaria, rhinitis, tuberculosis. – For sinusitis, breathing of vapor of decoction of leaves.
– Decoction of leaves used for washing and cleaning wounds. – Other uses: Diabetes, lumbago, sciatica, toothaches, tuberculosis, dysentery, gout. – In China, used for promote eschar formation. – In France, leaf extract used as hypoglycemic. – In Guatemala, leaf decoction for fever. Hot water extract of dried leaf used for ringworm, wounds, ulcers, pimples and as vaginal douche. – In India, as mosquito repellent and insecticide. – In Italy, as inhalation therapy for asthma; also for diabetes. – In Kenya, for snail infestation. – In Mexico, for urethritis, laryngitis, cystitis, gastritis, enteritis; as antipyretic and antimalarial. – In Tunisia, for bronchial conditions and cough. – In Spain, for colds, catarrh, diabetes. Preparation for use: Gather the leaves, dry in the sun for 5-6 hours. Place in a paper bag, tie and hang in the shade for a week. Decoct 50 gms of the dried leaves in a pint of boiling water; drink 6 glasses daily. For fresh leaves, use 60 to 70 gms to a pint of boiling water, drink the same amount. Livestock
• Mastitis: A herbal gel made from C longa, Cedrus deodara, G glabra and E globulus, applied twice daily, is used to treat and prevent subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows. • Bovine endometriosis: Cow with endometritis were given an intrauterine infusion of a 10% solution of a tincture of E globulus. • Ectoparasites: Two experimental herbal mixtures containing E globulus along with several other plant oils have been used on dogs to treat ectoparasites. Other
– Biopesticidal: Leaves burned for use as Insect repellant. Extract used to kill fleas. – Timber: Although of poor quality, used for fence post and pole construction. – Perfumery: Oil used in perfumery.
Fire Tree Distribution – Introduced to the Philippines during the early Spanish period. – Planted along roadsides and gardens. Properties – Antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diarrhea, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory.
Parts used Flowers, leaves, stem, bark.
Uses Folkloric – No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. – In Bangladesh folk medicine, used for the treatment of diabetes.
Gabi Distribution – Generally cultivated throughout the Philippines but is not a native of the Archipelago. – in cultivated soil, nearby swamps or water. – Pantropic cultivation. Properties – Leaves and petioles are excellent to taste, also rich in minerals. – Leaf juice considered styptic, stimulant, rubifacient. – Juice of corm is considered laxative, demulcent and anodyne. – Tubers are digestive, laxative, diuretic, lactagogue, and styptic. – Pressed juice of petioles are styptic. – Acridity of leaves, petioles and tubers is due to raphides which easily disappear on boiling or cooking. These crystals may cause irritation. – Studies have suggested analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hypolipidemic properties. Parts utilized
Roots and leaves. Uses Culinary / Nutrition – Prized for its large corms or underground stems, used as staple food in many localities. – Fresh edible leaves and petioles are a rich source of protein, ascorbic acid, dietary fiber, and some important minerals. – The corms, petioles and leaf blades are good sources of vitamin B. – To the early Hawaiians, grown mainly for poi production.
– Its easy digestibility makes it a great nutritional supplement for weight gain needs in cancer-cachexia, AIDS, pancreatitis and a miscellany of weight-loss conditions. Folkloric – Used for asthma, arthritis, diarrhea, internal hemorrhage, skin disorders. – Juice of petioles sometimes used for earache and otorrhea. – Juice of the corm used in alopecia. – Leaf juice also used for internal hemorrhages, otalgia, adenitis. – Internally, a good laxative. Also, used for piles. – Also, used as antidote for wasp and insect stings. Leaf juice applied to scorpion stings and snake bites. – Heated tubers are applied locally to painful rheumatic joints. – Ash of the tubers, mixed with honey, is used for buccal aphthous stomatitis. – Raw juice of gabi, mixed with sugar, used as febrifuge.
Halon Distribution In open waste places, at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao. Certainly introduced; sometimes, cultivated. Properties – Nutritionally, leaves are an excellent source of protein. Plant is a good source of minerals, such as iron, calcium, phosphorus and carotenoids.
Parts used Leaves, seeds.
Uses Culinary / Nutrition – In Iran and Iraq, seeds and tender leaves are eaten. – Leaves considered an excellent source of protein. – In Southeast Asia, plant is used as a vegetable. Folkloric – Decoction of leaves used for chest afflictions – In traditional and folk medicine, used for respiratory infections, vision defects, tuberculosis, fleshy tumors, liver problems and inflammations. – In Ayurveda, leaf decoction used for chest afflictions and gastroenteritis; seeds applied to sores. . Seeds and leaves use as astringent for stopping diarrhea, bloody stools, hematuria, and excessive menstruation. (10) – In India, seeds are used as food and medicinally, as diuretic. – Also, applied to scrofulous sores.
Ipil-Ipil Distribution: – In settled areas at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. – Locally gregarious and abundant. – Introduced from tropical America. – Now pantropic. Properties • Acrid, sweet, bitter, mildly toxic. Parts utilized Dried seeds. Uses Edibility In some provinces, seeds occasionally used as a coffee substitute. Folkloric – In the Philippines, not much utilized as a medicinal plant. – Roasted seeds used as emollient. – Used for Intestinal parasitism: ascaris and trichinosis. – Roots in decoction used as emmenagogue. – Decoction of bark and roots is a powerful emmenagogue. In the West Indies, used as abortifacient. – In China, seeds are eaten to rid of round worms.
Jerusalem Cherry Distribution In the Philippines, grown in gardens for ornamental interest. Common in commericial botanical garden in Baguio.
Parts used Bark, fruit, leaves and seeds. Uses Folkloric No reported medicinal use in the Philippines. In India, used in homeopathy medicine to treat acute lower abdominal pain and somnolence. In South Africa, reportedly used for treatment of boils and gonorrhea; orally, as a male tonic and for abdominal pain.
Kalamansi Distribution – Widely cultivated in the Philippines. – The species is native to the Philippines. Properties Aromatic, antiseptic, antiphlogistic, carminative, deodorant, refrigerant.
Parts used Fruit, leaves, roots.
Uses Culinary and nutrition – It is fairly sour and is a popular seasoning for many local food. – Served with iced-tea, seafoods and meats. – Also used for making juice and marmalade. – Kalamnsi-ade is a rich source of vitamin C – Condiment: Use rind and fruit. Folkloric – Aromatic bath: Mix juice with gogo. – Cough, colds and sore throat: Drink warm kalamansi-ade. – Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostril to inhale. – Applied externally for itching. – Higaonon tribe of Mindanao use decoction of leaves to lower hypertension. Juice from partly roasted fruits used for coughs and colds. (10) – Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo, for itching and to stimulate hair growth. – Juice of fruit used for Acne vulgaris and Pruritis vulvae. – In Malaysia, used as an antidote for poison.
– Poultice of pandanus leaves, mixed with salt and juice of citrus microcarpa, for abscesses. – In Malaya, combined with pepper to help expel phlegm. – Root used at childbirth. – Leaf oil used as carminative, with a effect stronger than peppermint oil. Others – Bleaching agent: Cut fruit and apply directly on freckles. – Stain Remover / Shampoo: Juice is used to remove ink stains from clothes and washing women’s hair. Also used for bleaching freckles. – Fruits crushed with bark of Entada phaseoloides used as hair shampoo, for itching and to stimulate hair growth.
Labanos Distribution – Widely cultivated in the Philippines at all altitudes. Properties · Considered anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiscorbutic, diuretic, laxative, tonic, carminative, corrective, stomachic, cholagogue, lithotriptic, emmenagogue. · The juice of the fresh root is considered powerfully antiscorbutic. · Roots considered carminative and corrective.
· Flowers considered becnic and cholagogue. · Seeds considered diuretic, laxative, stimulant, and lithotriptic. · In Iranian traditional medicine, seeds are considered diuretic carminative, antifever, antitussive and gastric tonic. Study yielded ten isothiocyanates, seven aliphatic hydrocarbons and some volatile substances. Uses
Edibility / Nutrition Leaves, flowers, roots, and seeds are edible. A popular, common, and inexpensive vegetable, eaten raw or cooked. Young leaves are also eaten raw or cooked. Excellent source of iron and good source of calcium; also a source of vitamin B. Folkloric · For diarrhea: boil the fresh leaves to concentrated decoction and drink. · Juice of leaves increases the flow of urine and promotes bowel movements. · Juice of fresh leaves also used as laxative; also for dropsy and general anasarca. · Root considered stimulant; also used for piles and stomach pains. · Juice used to expel wind from the bowels.
· Juice of fresh roots considered antiscorbutic. · Roots are crushed and applied locally as dressing or poultice for burns, scalds, ecchymoses, or fetid or smelly feet. · Decoction of root used for fevers. · Decoction of roots used to bring out the rash in eruptive fevers. · Coughs: Decoction of flowers; or, boil 6 to 15 gms seed preparation to decoction and drink. · Seeds promote the flow of urine, bowel movements, and menstruation. · Seeds used for cancer of the stomach.
· For patients with edema, bloated belly (ascites), pale yellowish face, and oliguria: used dried root preparation with citrus rind preparation (5:1 proportion). Boil to a concentrated decoction and drink. Others
Makahiya Distribution – Common weed widely distributed in the Philippines in open, moist, waste places, open grasslands and open thickets, at low and medium altitudes in settled areas. – Introduced from tropical America.
– Pantropic weed. Properties – Considered expectorant, antiasthmatic. analgesic, antispasmodic, alterant, sedative and antidepressant. – Roots are bitter, astringent, acrid, alexipharmic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, constipating, cooling, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, resolvent, vulnerary. – Leaves are bitter, sudorific, tonic.
– Emetic effect attributed to mimosine. Parts utilized Entire plant.
Uses Folkloric – In the Philippines, roots used as diuretic; also used for dysentery and dysmenorrhea. – Entire plant in decoction used as alterant and antiasthmatic. – Root considered aphrodisiac, and used for bladder gravel and similar urinary complaints. – Decoction or infusion of leaves used in asthma; expectorant. – Used for hypertension, menorrhagia, glandular swelling, sore throat and hoarseness.
Niyog Distribution – Extensively cultivated in the Philippines, especially in regions where the dry season is not too prolonged. Properties – Considered antitumor, antidotal, antiseptic, aperient, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, depurative, diuretic, pediculicide, refrigerant, stomachic, styptic, suppurative, vermifuge. – Roots considered antiscorbutic, astringent, and diuretic.
Parts used Roots, bark, “bloom” of the leaf, the cabbage, flowers, and the fruit (husk, shell, water, endosperm, oil.) Uses Edibility / Culinary / Nutrition – Use oil for cooking; take meat and/or gata (cream) as food. – The ubod part is a delicacy used in a variety of preparations: lumpia, achara, salads. – A good source of iron and calcium. – Fresh coconut juice is considered astringent; allowed to stand, it loses astringency. Folkloric – Myriads of use in the traditional systems worldwide: abscesses, asthma, baldness, burns and bruises,, cough and colds, kidney stones, scabies, ulcers, among many others. – Constipation: Take 1 to 2 tablespoons of gata (cream).
– Dandruff: Massage oil on scalp, leave overnight, and wash hair. – Diarrhea and/or vomiting: Drink water of young fruit, as tolerated. Water from the young coconut has been used as a substitute for dextrose infusion in emergent situations during World War II. – Dry skin: Apply oil and massage into affected area.
– Young roots astringent for sore throats. – Ash of bark used for scabies.
Okra Distribution – Cultivated for its edible fruit. – Nowhere naturalized. – Pantropic. Properties – Whole plant is aromatic, with an odor resembling cloves. – Demulcent, emollient, sudorific, cooling, carminative, stimulant, cordial, antispasmodic. – Very mucilaginous when cooked. – Mucilage considered to have an aphrodisiac effect. Parts utilized · Roots, leaves, young pods, seeds. Uses Edibility / Nutrition · Fruit is edible. · Prepared in a variety of ways; an ingredient of soups and stews. · Very mucilaginous when cooked. · Fair source of iron, vitamin A and C; good source of calcium. · Also contains thiamine and riboflavin. · Seeds occasionally used a coffee substitute. Folkloric · Decoction of roots and leaves as a tea or for washing. · Decoction of young fruit useful for catarrh, urinary problems. · Syrup from mucilaginous fruit used for sore throat. · Infusion of roots used for syphilis. · Poultice of roots and leaves for wound healing. · Young pods for fevers, difficult urination and diarrhea. · Decoction of roots for headaches, varicose veins, arthritis, fevers. · Decoctions of leaves for abdominal pain. CONSUMER HEALTH Consumer health education is the process of educating the consumers about the safety of the products they consume. It is meant to protect them from injuries and inform them about their rights as the backbone of producers and manufacturers. HEALTH INFORMATION
Personal health information (PHI), also referred to as protected health information, generally refers to demographic information, medical history, test and laboratory results, insurance information and other data that is collected by a health care professional to identify an individual and determine appropriate care. HEALTH PRODUCT
Health care product category includes all products including medical preparations and pharmaceutical preparations available by doctor’s prescription or not. These products include the major category of shampoos, mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. Also called personal care products. Usage of flavors in this category relies heavily on the use of menthol type products and other mints (spearmint, wintergreen). Covering up medicinal systems is more difficult and care must be maintained not to adversely affect the flavorist tasting these often potent and potentially harmful medicinal preparations. Historically, anise, high benzaldehyde cherry flavors, root beer flavor, other potent brown-type flavors (anise, vanilla, chocolate), and grape flavors have also been the most popular in this case.