They are truly religions because they embody the concept of religion. Taoism cannot be classified as a religion with certain doctrines and practices but it has been converted to one with presence of gods, temples, priests, and sacrifices. Confucianism is more of a philosophy of the Chinese people and has no sacred writings priesthood etc. but it has affected Chinese character and created cultic development.
2.Chinese concept of the yin and yang as a unifying explanation for the universe.
Yin – negative force of nature. Yang – positive force of nature. The interaction between yin & yang was understood as one of the factors in the operation of the universe. All nature, humankind, and events are a combination of both forces and when the forces are harmoniously combined life is the way it should be.
3. How could the hexagrams of the I Ching be viewed as a means of divination? How could they be seen as having personality and wisdom of their own? Note the editorial work of Confucius. Chinese sought the future in the patterns of the shell of the tortoise or in stalks of grains. The shell of the tortoise was sought to be especially in tune with the rhythms of the universe because of the long life of its inhabitant. – With the casting of coins or stalks of a plant, certain patterns emerge. By identifying these patterns, a prediction is made. When casting the coins, they each represented a trigram that when put together you would compare it to your hexagram number. Each hexagram number had a different reading (they were kind of their own version of a fortune cookie). The readings were a form of divination in the way that they each had separate readings about actions to take in the future. They had a personality and wisdom of their own in a sense that each hexagram had a different reading and action to follow. They each had a different fortune. 4. Why did the decline of the feudal system in ancient China set the stage for both Taoism and Confucianism?
The reason that the decline of the feudal system in ancient China set the stage for both Taoist and Confucianism is that people embraced more religious beliefs. Tired of the constant infighting, they looked for ways to work together. The ideas of these systems allowed people to get along.
5.Contrast the view of the best government as it is revealed in the Tao Te Ching and in the teachings of Confucius. 6.By what process did Taoism become magic? Page 185 7.How would the current leaders of China regard Taoism? How would they evaluate the teachings of Confucius? 8.What political difficulties do religions face in China today?