Violance Aginst Women in Bangladesh

Published: 2021-09-01 14:10:10
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Violence against women in Bangladesh has largely been aggravated by certain socio-cultural factors such as lack of gender equality, lack of awareness and knowledge about right, poverty, low educational level, women’s position in the family and cultural taboos regarding violence and rape. The consequences of rape and fairly recent form of violence – acid throwing- have a serious impact on the victim’s position in the society and her life, her chances of marriage and her ability to maintain a decent life.
The socio-cultural context of violence in Bangladesh: Well Known risk factors of violence and sexual assaults are prevalent in Bangladesh, among other illiteracy poverty and lack of education. Very few women are aware of their rights. From available research and other documents it is clear that violence against women in Bangladesh is a grave problem. However, this understanding has done little to redress the devaluation of women in the Bangladeshi culture. The general attitude is reflected in the lack of will to assist women effectively when they seek help.
Media reports, records from the police, courts, and hospitals reflect that incidences of abuse against women are alarmingly on the rise. Each year more and more cases are reported to agencies set up to intervene in cases of violence against women. Rape, burns, battery, homicide, acid attack, abduction, trafficking are all seen to be on the rise every year. The general increase in media focus as well as activism by women’s and human rights organizations however have created greater public awareness resulting in more frequent and open discussions leading to more attention to possible solutions of the problem.
The consequences of violence: Violence against women has short and long term impact on both physical and mental health of victims. It affects not only women’s own lives and productivity, but also those of other family members, especially children. Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world and its estimated prevalence rate of violence against women is extremely high which, in turn, is ‘an obstacle to the achievement of equality, development and peace” (Johnson et al. , 2008, p. 16) Due to a lack of reliable base-line surveys, the exact number of women affected by violence is unknown .
However, non-governmental organization (NGO) reports indicate that Bangladesh has one of the highest rate globally despite advancements of Women`s Rights and a strong history of women’s movements. Deeply embedded in cultural and socio-economic practices, violence against women is sanctioned by both society and the state, in the name of culture, tradition and Islamic religion. How it recognized? Recognizing violence against women as a violation of Human Rights is a significant turning-point in the struggle to end violence against women globally (UNIFEM, 2003).
A human rights perspective broadens the definition of violence against women and “focuses attention on discrimination and inequalities that are maintained or tolerated by the state and that increase women`s vulnerability to violence” (Johnson et al. , 2008, p. 4) Violence against women has been recognized as an Human Rights issue since the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, which established that “human rights of women and of the girl-child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights” (VDPA, Part I, para. 8). What are the consequences of that? A number of consequences have been found to be associated with intentional violence, such as: * Pelvic Infection * STDs * Sterility * Chronic pain * Gastrointestinal diseases * Homicide * Suicide What are various psychological symptoms are also associated with violence? These are: * Sleeping disorders * Depression * Trauma related symptoms * Low self-esteem * Suicide ideation and attempts. What the most common forms of violence In Bangladesh? 1. Fatwa violence against women in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world and its estimated prevalence rate of violence against women is extremely high which, in turn, is ‘an obstacle to the achievement of equality, development and peace’ (Johnson et al. , 2008, p. 16). Due to lack of reliable base-line surveys, the exact number of women affected by violence is unknown (CEDAW/C/BGD/Q/7). However, non-governmental organization (NGO) reports indicate that Bangladesh has one of the highest rates globally, despite advancements of women`s rights and a strong history of women’s movements.
Deeply embedded in cultural and socio-economic practices, violence against women is sanctioned by both society and the state, in the name of culture, tradition and Islamic religion. What is fatwa violence? ‘The fatwa (is) an interpretation of the Qur’an and the -Prophet Muhammed’s teachings, has the potential to define everyday practices and modes of being for that religious leader’s followers. ’ ‘Although any Muslim can technically follow any fatwa, the norms and practices of their particular community will determine whether they carry it out. Black and Nadirsyah write: ‘Simply stated, a fatwa is a legal opinion issued by an Islamic law specialist on a specific issue. ’But then, later, they propose: ‘A fatwa is a non-binding legal opinion or ruling given by a recognized Islamic legal specialist…. ’ ‘A small number of countries do give fatwas legal force, making them binding when gazetted and published…. In some Muslim countries, such as Bangladesh, it is an offence to issue an unauthorized fatwa…. ’ ‘Fatwas are to be issued only by leading Islamic scholars because the ruling or opinion iven is to be arrived at through deep understanding and thorough knowledge of the Shari’a, drawing on the sources of Islamic law, namely the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet, the opinions of the jurists of the four Sunni schools of law (madhabs) and by applying the methodology of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). ’ ‘As Islam has no centralised, international priestly hierarchy, there is no uniform method for determining who can issue a valid fatwa, nor is there one definitive academic qualification on which a Mufti or Ayatollah’s standing rests. There is a misconception that a fatwa is strictly an order to kill specified individual(s) but the truth of it is that fatwas are issued on all sorts of question, such as whether or not an autopsy is permissible under Muslim law. What are the overviews of international human rights commitments and existing situation in Bangladesh regarding Fatwa? The international law apparatus can be used as a functioning tool in offering ways of enforcement of Women? s Human Rights in multiple ways. The UN General Assembly has adopted numerous resolutions both on violence against women in general and on violence against women in specific contexts.
For example, the Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325) calls for the protection of women in conflict situations, and their full inclusion in peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction (2000). It has also adopted resolutions on violence against vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of women (e. g. migrant women), and with respect to particular forms of violence (e. g. UN General Assembly Resolution Working towards the Eliminations of Crimes Against Women Committed in the Name of Honor (2004)) (Chinkin, 2010).
The World Health Organization (WHO) further reports and highlights a connection between the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the prevention of VAW, claiming that working towards the MDG`s will reduce violence against women and preventing VAW will contribute to achieving the MDG`s (WHO 2005). There are numerous international human rights commitments which Bangladesh is obliged to respect, protect and fulfill, in relations to VAW. However, simply ratifying international conventions, covenants and treaties is not sufficient; they must be incorporated into domestic law in order to be effective.
To offer an example, Bangladesh ratified the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution in 2002, but has failed to incorporate its provisions into domestic law. 2. Domestic Violence: What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is typically considered a private matter and is generally ignored by policies and programs. As a result, cases of domestic violence remain largely unknown and are reflected in official statistics. 3. Abduction: What is abduction?
Of a person or people Kidnapping, the taking away of a person against the person’s will Alien abduction, memories of being taken by apparently nonhuman entities Bride kidnapping, a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry Child abduction, the abduction or kidnapping of a young child (or baby) by an older person Express kidnapping, a method of abduction where a small ransom that a company or family can easily pay is requested. Tiger kidnapping, taking a hostage to force a loved one or associate of the victim to do something. Trafficking in women and children 4. Rape:
Given that rape is stigmatized as loss for the women who are raped, such cases are also greatly under-reported. Marital rape is not recognized as an offence by the law 5. Acid Attack 6. Burn 7. Homicide : What is homicide? Homicide (Latin: homicidium, Latin: homo human being + Latin: caedere to cut, kill) is the act of a human killing another human. [Murder, for example, is a type of homicide. It can also describe a person who has committed such an act, though this use is rare in modern English. Homicide is not always a punishable act under criminal law, and is different to murder from a formal legal point of view.
Criminal homicide: Criminal homicide takes several forms and includes certain unintentional killings. The crime committed in a criminal homicide is determined by the state of mind of the defendant and statutes defining the crime. Murder, for example, is usually an intentional crime. State-sanctioned homicide Homicides may also be non-criminal when conducted with the sanction of the state. The most obvious examples are capital punishment, in which the state determines that a person should die. Homicides committed in action during war are usually not subject to criminal prosecution either.
In addition, members of law enforcement entities are also allowed to commit justified homicides within certain parameters which, when met, do not usually result in prosecution; see deadly force. Global statistics: A 2011 study by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime brought together a wide variety of data sources to create a worldwide picture of trends and developments. Sources included multiple agencies and field offices of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and national and international sources from 207 countries. The report estimated that in 2010, the total number of homicides globally was 468,000.
More than a third (36%) occurred in Africa, 31% in the Americas, 27% in Asia, 5% in Europe and 1% in Oceania. Since 1995, the homicide rate has been falling in Europe, North America, and Asia, but has risen to a near “crisis point” in Central America and the Caribbean. Of all homicides worldwide, 82% of the victims were male and 18% were female; of the female victims, 40 to 70% were linked to partner- or family-related violence. On a per-capita scaled level, “the homicide rate in Africa and the Americas (at 17 and 16 per 100,000 population, respectively) is more than double the global average (6. per 100,000), whereas in Asia, Europe and Oceania (between 3 and 4 per 100,000) it is roughly half. ” Forty-two percent of homicides globally are committed using firearms. 8. Psychological Abuse : What is psychological abuse? Psychological abuse, also referred to as emotional abuse or mental abuse, is a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Such abuse is often associated with situations of power imbalance, such as abusive relationships, bullying, child abuse and abuse in the workplace. There were “no consensus views about the definition of emotional abuse. ” As such, clinicians and researchers have offered sometimes divergent definitions of emotional abuse. However, the widely used Conflict Tactics Scale measures roughly twenty distinct acts of “psychological aggression” in three different categories: * Verbal aggression (e. g. , saying something that upsets or annoys someone else); * Dominant behaviours (e. g. preventing someone to have contact with their family); * Jealous behaviors (e. g. , accusing a partner of maintaining other parallel relations). Effects: English, et al. report that children whose families are characterized by interpersonal violence, including psychological aggression and verbal aggression, may exhibit a range of serious disorders, including chronic depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation and anger. A 2008 study by Walsh and Shulman reports that relationship dissatisfaction for both partners is more likely to be associated with, in women, psychological aggression and, in men, with withdrawal.
Clinical perception: A study found that abuse committed by women, including emotional and psychological abuse such as controlling or humiliating behavior, was typically viewed as less serious or detrimental than identical abuse committed by men. Additionally, Sorenson and Taylor found that respondents had a broader range of opinions about female perpetrators, representing a lack of clearly defined mores when compared to responses about male perpetrators. It is suggested that some forms of psychopathology lead to some men adopting patriarchal ideology to justify and rationalize their own pathology * Sexual Abuse of children in the family Dowry related violence * Violence During Pregnancy * Forced Prostitution Is there any Violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad?……… * Answer: yes of course ( source Parvez Babul | 14 May 2012 5:56 pm at daily new age) The women, facing violence by their husbands/inmates, die many times before their death! Moreover, the rate of violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad is beyond the imagination. In most cases victims are helpless there, for many reasons as in foreign land. I have tried to portray a simple picture of violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad to realise how endless inhumane lives they pass, and even killed!
Most of the victim told me that, before wedding, the parents or guardians are unable to collect enough information about the grooms staying abroad. Consequently, they have to believe the grooms no matter how false information they give. But after marriage, when the fate of women starts burning, nothing can be done, but have to accept unless the lives of women turn into ashes. Sometimes greed of being migrants of family members with the help of migrant husbands and other causes makes some parents and guardians more interested to catch Bangladeshi grooms in abroad.
I am certain that many of you know more or less about the violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad. Yet I like to present here one of the touchy case studies of some sufferer and severely injured women to realise the reality and state of grave inhumanity, so that if we can do something needed in favour of them in future. Koli (not her real name) was an educated girl and had an affair with a person in Dhaka. Both she and her lover were planning to marry on upcoming Valentine’s Day. But Koli’s parents got a proposal through a matchmaker that there is a Bangladeshi ‘good’ groom, have been staying in Sweden for a few years.
If they wed Koli with that groom, no dowry or gift is needed rather the groom will manage the cost of wedding. In addition, both Koli and her family members will be able to settle in Sweden. Very lucrative proposal! Koli’s parents agreed and the wedding was done within five days without taking consent from Koli. Koli unwillingly went Sweden with her husband. After going there within a few days she discovered that her husband drinks wine regularly, have realtion with other women and tortures mentally and physically Koli if she protests.
Her husband kept her confined at the residence, and she was not allowed to go outside or contact any one. Even she could not contact her parents in Bangladesh, because she was not allowed to touch her husband’s mobile phone and talk with anyone. Koli could do nothing, but cried like a bird confined in a cage! She became sick due to torture and after suffering a few days, she was taken to a doctor by her husband unwillingly. She kept the fact hidden of torturing by her husband, and told the doctor that she got the marks of injuries in her body due to fall down at the bathroom.
After seven months Koli felt that she was pregnant. Getting the news, her husband kicked at her belly, bleeding started and the embryo was killed. This is just one of the very simple stories of violence I mentioned. There are many women who have been being tortured more dangerously by their husbands; became disabled, passing lives in shelter centres, unable to continue legal action against the husbands because they fear of more torture. Some husbands have one more wives, took from Bangladesh; even some wives are denied their rights to the children.
Some husbands make fabricated story in favour of them before wedding, but in the practical field it is found that some husbands even unemployed in abroad and were sentenced to imprisonment for drug addiction and other unlawful activities. Some husbands torture their wives in the streets, parks, shopping malls and other places. Evidence shows that violence against Bangladeshi women exists in many countries, and some women have been killed by their husbands. In addition, some persons take women in abroad by the name of ‘marriage’, sale them in the brothel or deal with sex trade there forcibly against the will of those women.
Some sufferer women suggested to the parents of Bangladeshi women not to become agree instantly to wed their daughters with the grooms live in abroad. Rather the parents must take some time to know details about the grooms as more as possible through different sources. The Bengali community in abroad, our embassies in different countries, and some other migrants should play helpful role in this regard. Though there is no enough data on the violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad, so necessary support, capacity-building and research must conduct to address the isssue and save lives of Bangladeshi women in abroad.
World Health Organization (WHO) estimates in 2002 that around 20-70% of abused women around the world never told another person about the abuse until being interviewed for a study by WHO. Amnesty International mentioned that around the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. Every year, violence in the home and the community devastates the lives of millions of women. Violence against women is rooted in a global culture of discrimination which denies women equal rights with men.
Amnesty added that there is an unbroken spectrum of violence that women face at the hands of people who exert control over them. States have the obligation to prevent, protect against, and punish violence against women whether perpetrated by private or public actors. States have a responsibility to uphold standards of due diligence and take steps to fulfill their responsibility to protect individuals from human rights abuses, the report concludes. What are the Experts suggested ensuring equality? Non-violent relationship with women and men through: •Fairness and negotiation; •Honesty and accountability; Respect to the women; •Trust and support; •Shared responsibility; •Positive parenting; •Non-threatening behavior; • Economic partnership. One question always comes in my mind that physically the same red blood we men and women carry by born, same rights we have in the constitution, but why we cannot be equal as human beings through women’s empowerment, establishing gender equity and equality? Steps of preventing that violence: Nevertheless, considering these Women`s Human Rights (WHR) enforcements internationally, multiple forms of violence against women remain high with considerably slow progress (Reilly 2009).
Therefore, violence against women is an issue that requires continuous redressing to guarantee women`s full enjoyments of their rights. To promote equal status for women, such violence must be recognised as a Human rights violation requiring immediate actions (Desai et al, 2002, p. 30). Violence against Women (VAW) is the most obvious gender-specific violation of Human Rights, and is a form of discrimination against women. It enforces women`s subordination and patriarchal structures throughout all levels of society, leading to issues such as the undervaluation of women`s economic contributions.
VAW is not only embedded in gender norms; gender norms are also constructed through VAW, and “the low status of women – economically, socially, culturally and politically both constitutes and enables the further denial of human rights in gender-specific ways, often at the hands of family members, male and female” (Reilly, 2009, p. 78). Thus, VAW both reflects and determines gendered social structures (McMillan, 2007). That is why framing VAW as a Human Rights violation requiring immediate action is crucial to challenge the economic, social and cultural marginalisation of women in Bangladesh.

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