The toddler must be able to make a mess uninterrupted. Initiative versus Guilt ( 3 – 6 Years) Children are attempting to develop a sense of initiative, that they are operators on the environment. When children ask questions and are answered sincerely, positive resolution of the developmental crisis is more likely. If the child’s efforts to explore hir/her questions are treated as a nuisance, the child may feel guilty. Industry versus Inferiority (6 – 12 Years) When the child enters school and advances through the elementary grades, the developmental crisis focuses on the child’s ability to win recognition through performance. A elementary student need generous encouragement and praise for their accomplishments. These students are more likely to develop a sense of industry, an eagerness to produce. Identity versus Role Diffusion (Adolescence) The youth’s attempt to discover his/her identity – to identify those things about himself/herself that are unique. An important aspect is his/her choice of occupation and also his/her emerging sexuality. QUESTION ii 1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth – ±2 Years) Infants obtain knowledge at this stage through physical experience with the environment.
The reflexes that newborns use to build schemes are starting point for cognitive development, and the intellectual changes that accures during this stage are dramatic. 2. Preoperations Stage (2 – 7 Years) The actions of a child at this stage are based on thought, the actions do not always seem logical from an adult perspective. Language grows tremendously during this stage. Take 2 identical objects and ask the children if they are still the sam or different. 3. Concrete operations Stage (±7 – 11 Years) This is the first stage in which schemes become organized into Operations that can be used to reason about the world.
Children can now mentally reverse events. Take a piece of clay and roll it into a long, skinny ‘’snake’’. Ask the children if there is more clay now or is it the same amount as the beginning. The concrete operational learners will be correct. 4. Formal operations Stage ( ±11 Years – Adult) At this stage one has the ability to think logically. They can verbalize the mental rules they use in solving problems. Give learners object to use in testing a principle of physics. QUESTION iii Self-esteem A person’s evalutation of his/her self-concept and the feelings associated with that evaluation. One can have a high or low self-esteem.
High self-esteem students are satisfied with themselves. Low self-esteem students are not satisfied with themselves. Self-concept A person’s description of himself/herself in terms of roles, attributes, or characteristics. The sense of being separate and distinct from others and the awareness of the constancy of the self. 1. Two students who doesn’t know each other interview each other and then stand behind each other telling the class what they have learned about each other. 2. Designing a self-collage about themselves. Their likes, dislikes, places they have been, people they admire etc. 3.
Break the class into groups of 4-6 and let everyone in the group tell Something positive of one of each of the group. 4. Each student make a 2-3 minute commercial of themselves. The topic Is why someone should hire me. QUESTION iv The reason one has for acting or behaving in a particular way or the general desire or willingness of someone to do something. Extrinsic Motivation: 1. Only good grades get a sticker. Children work hard so they can be rewarded with a sticker. 2. Earning money for good behavior, academic or social. 3. Student will be held back or doesn’t graduate when they fail a test. 4.
If you don’t pass a test you are not allowed to do extra-surricular activities. 5. Takeing a job in an environment that you don’t like, but the money is good. 6. Doing something just to impress someone else. 7. People expect you to do something. 8. Doning something out of embarrassment, shame or fear. Intrinsic Motivation: 1. The pursuit of knowlede. 2. Having more responsibility. 3. Doing something just because you feel good afterwards. 4. Doing something just because you enjoy doning it. 5. Doing projects just to see how the information is relevant to you life. 6. Having a family for the joy of it. QUESTION v
The first needs are Physiological needs such as breathing, food, water, sleep. Then safety needs, security of empoyment, morality, health. Third is the belongingness and love needs like friendship, family and affection. Then come esteem needs such as self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others and respect by others. At the highest level comes self-actualization like moraily, creativity, spontaneity and problem solving. Make sure the studens inform the teacher of their needs, such as if a student is having difficulty with breathing. Communication is important. Obtain a fair, orderly and safe calssroom.
Grading and discipline plicies must be understood. Students should be aware of the consequences for their actions. Group exercises increases one’s feeling of belongingness. Have a lighthearted and fun class. Ask questions that encourages participation and avoids ambarrasing or singling out students. Encourage students who failed to study harder. QUESTION vi Is a depressed state when a person feels that no matter what he/she does, it will have no influence on important life events. Students who have learned helplessness orientation feel that nothing they do matters. They tend to attribute failures to reasons that are internal and stable.
This condition can also arise from teacher-mondatel consequences that are consistent and therfore unpredictable. QUESTION vii Work with indiviuals to change behavior. You can set behavioral goals, determine appropriate reinforcers, select procedures for changing behavior, implement procedures and monitor results, evaluate progress and revise as necessary. You must encourage rule-following behavior in your classroom by responding immediately when a student breaks a rule. Be consistent and be fair. Praise students when they accomplish something, and praise them meaningfully.