Especially people in a traffic jam become very nervous because the crowd makes them crazy, so they lose their patience and also their attention. In addition, most young drivers like driving fast and they risk their lives and other people’s lives. What’s more, some Turkish people drive when they are drunk. It can be very difficult to control their cars when they drink too much. Another reason is the poor conditions of roads. There are road constructions all the time. For example, one day, they dig the road for telephone cabling. Then the road is repaired.
Two days later, it is repaired again and they install electricity cables. As a result, the road is full of holes. Furthermore, the road signs are poorly arranged. It is too difficult to read a sign when the traffic is going very fast because the sign is either behind a tree or some words are erased from it. The final for reason for traffic accidents in Turkey is that there are lots of old cars in traffic. The owners of these cars do not care about them, so they can cause accidents. For example, if a car is twenty years old, its wheel can fall off, and this can lead to a terrible accident.
In addition, old cars have old engines, and old engines can be a huge problem. For instance, they can start to burn in traffic. To sum up, the attitude of Turkish drivers, the poor conditions of the roads, and the number of old cars in traffic are the reasons why people have accidents in Turkey. It is strogly believed that the number of accidents can decrease if people keep calm, take a taxi when they are drunk, repair the roads, and place the traffic signs where people can see them easily. They should also ban old cars from traffic. If nothing is done, many people will go on dying. ( giving advice)
Answer the following questions. 1. What is the essay about? It is about the reasons for traffic accidents in Turkey. 2. What is the first reason for traffic accidents in Turkey? The attitude of Turkish drivers 3. What are the results of driving in a traffic jam? Give TWO examples. a) They become very nervous b) They lose their patience and also their attention. 4. What is the second reason for traffic accidents in Turkey? The poor conditions of roads 5. Why can it be difficult to read road signs in fast-going traffic? Give TWO reasons. a) The sign is either behind a tree b) Some words are erased from it
What is the third reason for traffic accidents in Turkey? There are lots of old cars in traffic 7. What pieces of advice does the author give us to stop traffic accidents in Turkey? Give TWO examples. People should keep calm / take a taxi when they are drunk / repair the roads / place the traffic signs where people can see them easily / ban old cars from traffic SAMPLE ESSAY 2 Read the model essay. HARMFUL EFFECTS OF WATCHING TELEVISION In a recent cartoon, one character said to another, “When you think of the great power of television to educate people, aren’t you glad it doesn’t?
” It is true that television has the power to educate and entertain, but unfortunately, television brings harm to people instead of benefits. Television is harmful because it creates passivity, discourages communication, and presents a false picture of reality. First of all, television makes viewers passive. For example, little children love watching the Sesame Street. In the Sesame Street, the characters are going on natural walks, playing with animals, and taking part in games. However, children become coach potatoes since they just sit and watch their favourite characters. Therefore, they become physically passive.
In addition, older viewers watch a discussion programme, but nobody will turn to the home viewers to ask for their opinion about the topic that is discussed on television. As a result, it is inevitable for them to become mentally passive. Secondly, television discourages communication. Families who watch television a lot talk only during commercials. If their next door neighbour visits them, the most comfortable activity for everyone is to watch television instead of having a conversation. What’s more, in some houses, all the family members have their own televisions in their rooms.
As a result, people separately watch television and have a little communication. Worst of all, television presents a false picture of reality. This picture makes viewers angry because they do not have the beauty or richness of characters on television. Viewers think that everyone in the United States has a luxurious apartment, a fast car and expensive wardrobe. Every detective, police officer, and lawyer, male or female, is suitable for a celebrity poster. In addition, news anchors and reporters have perfect hair and makeup because they must fit television’s standard of beauty.
However, when viewers meet the characters on television, they become disappointed because they realise that what they see on television is far from reality. All in all, television, like cigarettes or saccharine, is harmful to our health. We are becoming passive, isolated and angry. And, most frightening, the average viewer spends a lot of time in front of television. I believe that people should reduce their television viewing time to be more sociable and active. Answer the following questions. 1. What is the essay about? It is about why television is harmful 2. What are the harmful effects of television?
An essay is a piece of writing that usually has five or more paragraphs. An essay is written about one topic that has several main points. The main points are introduced in an introduction paragraph and supported in body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph is the last paragraph. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH An introduction paragraph is the first paragraph in an essay. It contains two parts.
Background Information: A few sentences about your subject that catch the attention of your reader. A Thesis Statement: One sentence that tells your reader the main points of your topic and states the overall “plan” of your essay. General Statements Metropolitan City is full of charm and beauty, so visitors from around the world come to enjoy its famous theatres, museums, and ethnic restaurants. Although Metropolitan City seems like a paradise, it isn’t. The city has several serious problems: poor public transportation, crowded streets, and expensive housing. Thesis Statement GIVING BACKGROUND INFORMATION
There are no specific rules for writing an introduction, but there are several techniques. Many introductions use one or a combination of the following techniques to provide background information and capture the reader’s attention. Move from general to specific This type of introduction opens with a general statement on the subject that shows importance and then leads the reader to the more specific thesis statement. Use an anecdote Another way to write an introduction is to relate an interesting story that will interest the reader in the subject. Newspaper and magazine writers frequently use this technique to begin their articles.
Use a quotation A quotation is an easy way to introduce your topic. You can quote an authority on your subject or use an interesting quotation from an article. You can also be more informal and use a proverb or a favourite saying of a friend or relative. Ask a question Asking one or more questions at the beginning of an essay is a good way to interest readers in the topic right away. They will want to continue reading in order to find the answers to the questions. Present facts and statistics Presenting some interesting facts or statistics establishes credibility. Analysing Introductions
Read the following sample introductions. Then, in small groups, identify the technique or techniques that are used in each one. Remember that authors often use a combination of techniques to write an introduction. 1. Karate, which literally means “the art of empty hands,” is the most widely practiced of all the martial arts. It is a way of self-defence that uses the body as a weapon for striking, kicking, and blocking. The art of karate, which originated in the ancient Orient, is more than 1,000 years old. It developed first as a form of monastery training and later became a method of self-defence.
During the seventeenth century, karate became highly developed as an art on the Japanese island of Okinawa. Over the years, this ancient art has become very popular, and today karate is practiced throughout the world. More than a method of combat, karate emphasizes self-discipline, positive attitude, and high moral purpose. Technique(s): _________________________ 2. One student looks at his neighbour’s exam paper and quickly copies the answers. Another student finds out the questions on a test before her class takes it and tells her friends. Still another student hides a sheet of paper with formulas under her desk.
What about you? Would you cheat on an exam if you knew you would not get caught? According to a recent national survey, 40 percent of American teenagers would cheat under that condition. What is causing cheating in our schools? Most students cheat on tests because they feel pressure to get into a good college, because they want to avoid long hours of studying, or simply because they are not concerned with honesty. Technique(s): _________________________ 3. Homicides cause the deaths of more children in Washington, D. G. , than any other single type of injury, including car accidents, or house fires.
Unfortunately, this phenomenon is not exclusive to Washington. The overcrowded neighbourhoods of many big American cities, such as Detroit, Dallas, and Miami, all experience senseless violent crime. Types of violent crime range from burglary to rape and murder. The solution to this growing problem is not to build more and bigger prisons, but rather to examine and deal with the causes: easy access to guns, drug addiction, and increasing poverty. Technique(s): _________________________ 4. Misty, a five-month-old German shepherd puppy, goes to the hospital twice a week, but not to see a veterinarian.
At this Veteran’s Administration hospital, Misty is helping doctors – not the other way around. Surprisingly, animals like Misty are visiting hospitals to relieve a type of pain doctors cannot treat. These animals give love in their therapy. Pets ranging from dogs to tropical fish are showing up as therapists in hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, and other institutions. Technique(s): _________________________ WHAT IS A THESIS STATEMENT? A thesis statement expresses your opinion about a topic. It is the basis of the introductory paragraph of your essay.
It should be a single complete sentence. You must be sure you can support the opinion in your thesis. A thesis statement should never be an open-ended question be limited to mentioning only those points you plan to discuss in your essay never be so broad that it’s difficult to discuss all relevant information only present one specific idea; not multiple ideas not contain two conflicting ideas EXERCISES ON THESIS STATEMENT PART A: Identify the problems in the following thesis statements using these categories: (a) conflicting ideas(b) open-ended question(c) too broad(d) not limited 1.
The World’s Fair in New Orleans was a disaster because of the way it was organised, but it was exciting for little children and had many good food booths. Problem(s): (c) too broad 2. TV commercials are disturbing to the person who wants to watch a good show; on the other hand, they provide entertainment and they provide a good opportunity to take a snack break. Problem(s): (a) conflicting ideas 3. Since politicians are constantly bombarding each other, how do they expect anyone to know who is right and who is wrong? Problem(s): (b) open-ended question 4.
Rap music is a popular form of art because it is creative and original and because it follows the traditions of other spontaneously developed music like jazz. Problem(s): (c) too broad 5. If people are not conscious of pollution, the world will be destroyed by the year 2050. Problem(s): (d) not limited PART B: Write the thesis statement for the topic sentences given. 1. Thesis Statement: e. g. Working people have several problems. a. First of all, they may have to take work home. b. Another problem is that they have to work long hours. c. The most important problem is that they may be under pressure.
Thesis Statement: Ready meals are becoming more and more popular every day. a. Firstly, ready meals are easy to prepare. b. Secondly, working people do not have enough time to cook. c. Finally, people can taste meals from around the world. 3. Thesis Statement: There are several reasons why people have sleeping problems. a. The first reason is that some people work really long hours and have to do a lot of travelling. b. Another reason for sleeping problems is unhealthy habits such as smoking or drinking too much coffee. c. Finally, in some countries people cannot sleep because of the lack of light.
Thesis Statement: Heart trouble results from several factors. a. First of all, the person may be under stress. b. Another risk factor is a family history of relatives with heart trouble. c. The major factor, however, is an unhealthy lifestyle. 5. Thesis Statement: Watching TV is beneficial in several ways. a. First of all, watching TV has the value of relaxation. b. In addition to being relaxing , television is entertaining. c. Most importantly television is educational. BODY PARAGRAPHS The body consists of one or more paragraphs following the introduction.
Each paragraph supports the main idea of your essay by breaking it down into smaller ideas or sub- topics. Each body paragraph consists of a ‘topic sentence’ and several ‘supporting sentences’. A ‘conclusion sentence’, which is optional, draws the paragraph together. Topic Sentence The first and most important problem is Metropolitan City’s inadequate public transportation system. Thousands of residents rely on the city’s buses and streetcars to travel throughout this large city, but Metro Transportation System’s daily schedules are totally unreliable. A bus or a streetcar that should arrive at 7:45 may not arrive until 8:00 or later.
Moreover, it is not unusual for a bus driver to pass up groups of people who are waiting for the bus because he wants to make up for lost time. Unfortunately, many people go to work late or miss important appointments. People must allow for waiting time at the bus and streetcar stops to get to their destinations on time. Concluding Sentence EXERCISES PART A: Write three supporting sentences for each of the following topic sentences. e. g. : I am terrible at doing the laundry. a. I often shrink my favourite shirts because I leave them in the dryer for too long. b. I forget to separate the coloured clothes from the white ones.
PART B: Fill in the clustering diagram below. Now fill in the diagram below. Complete the thesis statement, and write three body paragraphs for the introduction paragraph given below. THE CAUSES OF CRIME Nowadays, the most serious issue in modern societies is high crime rates. In other words, the number of people who commit crime has increased recently. Some streets in our city are so dangerous that we are afraid to walk in these streets at night. In addition, the number of thieves is very high in our neighbourhood. Well, what are the causes of this terrible situation?
He is very ill. He will certainly die if you do not call a doctor. Clearly, that cannot be true. It is an obvious lie. Everyone knows that. REFORMULATION in other words to put it in a different way Michael is a heavy sleeper. In other words, it is very difficult to wake him up. Some people are workaholics. To put it in a different way, they hardly ever take time off work. ADDITION & LINKING and also besides moreover furthermore / what’s more in addition first, (firstly, / first of all, / to begin with, / in the first place, / for one thing secondly, (second, / in the second place,) thirdly, (third, / in the third place,)
finally, / lastly, / last of all, apart from as well as Tom is addicted to drugs. Moreover / Besides / Also, he drinks too much. Nancy writes short stories. In addition, she writes articles for a newspaper. To prepare his homework, Jack went through various history books. Furthermore, he took notes from several encyclopaedias. During her spare time, Kayla practices the piano. In addition, she plays the violin. I prefer to buy fruits and vegetables in the open market because they are quite cheap there. Besides, they are much fresher than fruits and vegetables sold at the greengrocer’s. Living in a city offers good job opportunities.
Also, it provides good educational opportunities. Ali does not have a gift for music. Moreover, he lacks motivation to practice music. Therefore, he can’t become a good musician. Owning a car has some advantages. First, (Firstly, / First of all, / To begin with,) it gives you comfort. Secondly, it saves you a lot of time. Thirdly, it gives you great freedom of movement. Apart from Citroen, we are the largest sports car manufacturer. As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition. John loves working for that company because he has time to relax. What’s more, he gets a pay rise next year. CONCLUSION in summary in brief in short
in conclusion to be brief to sum up all in all This is the National Football Team’s most disastrous and embarrassing defeat ever; in short, it is a fiasco. Andrew had bad habits, cheated on his wife, and didn’t have a job. In conclusion, he was a terrible husband. REASON & RESULT Some people are very stressed Children drink polluted water , so . As a result, . Consequently, . As a consequence, . For this reason, . Therefore, . That’s why, they may have health problems. they become ill and die. Stress Drinking polluted water can cause is the cause of leads to gives rise to results in is the reason for health problems. death among children.
Some people may have health problems People become ill because since as they are very stressed. they drink polluted water. People have health problems Children become ill and die because of due to as a result of as a consequence of stress. drinking polluted water. CONTRAST although Although my mother is talkative, my father is quiet. My father is quiet although my mother is talkative. however My mother is talkative. However, my father is quiet. My mother is talkative; however, my father is quiet. on the other hand My mother is talkative. On the other hand, my father is quiet. but My mother is talkative, but my father is quiet.yet My mother is talkative, yet my father is quiet. different from My mother’s personality is different from my father’s personality. unlike Unlike my mother, my father is quiet. EXERCISES ON LINKING WORDS PART A: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linking words in the box. although because in fact in other words since finally however as well as It was a dark and a rainy night. It was 2 o’clock in the morning when my phone rang. A voice on the phone told me to get up immediately and come to the office. I was shocked at that moment; (1) in other words, I didn’t know what to do but anyway I got up and got dressed.
While I was walking in the street, I felt creepy (2) because / since it was dark and cold. (3) Because / Since it was very late at night, there was nobody around. (4) Although I had put on a thick cardigan, I was feeling cold. (5) Finally, I came to the office at 2. 35 after a long walk. I was curious (6) as well as scared. (7) However, when I opened the door, all the lights went on and everybody shouted ‘Happy Birthday’. (8) In fact, it was a surprise birthday party for me. PART B: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linking words in the box. to begin with since