Tourism on destination countries and suggest ways to tackle any negative effect

Published: 2021-06-17 08:30:05
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Introduction tourism as an economic activity is important for many countries that try to obtain a share in the 8 $ trillion industry , while it can bring in wealth and economic benefits , there are also some negative consequences for those nations and their regions . for both these , it is important to understand the impact of tourism ( Holloway, and Davidson ,2009) .
The aim of this study is to understand the structure of the Tourism industry to identify the impact of Tourism as a global activity and how to tackle impact , we need to define the meaning of term Tourism , UNWTO defined Tourism as people spending leisure time outside their original and usual residence area , for temporary time not for purpose of employment or residence , some governments added some extra outlines for the definition Canadian government said that it needs to be away from residence area by 25 miles , United States Government defined it 100 Miles and in United Kingdom defined as 20 Miles or 3 hours away from usual residence point , and term tourist began to be in use in 1942 professor Hunziker and Krapf of Bern university (Theobald,2005 ) .
Tourism depend on two important factors which are tourists 1.035 Billion tourists around the world In 119 countries by UNWTO researches for 2013 , it contribute directly to many nations economy , France had in 2012 83 million visitors with amount of receipts of 53.7$ Billion in 2012 , USA considered top international Tourism receipts 126.2$ Billion for 67.0 million tourists in 2012 . and destination Countries are countries which have one or more out of the 6 competitive dimensions of tourism which are Environmental , Political , Technological , Cultural , Social and Economical (McCool,Moisey,2001).
Positive Impact of Tourism
1-Economical Tourism has Direct and Indirect impact on any country economy , Directly by the fees and taxes that the government take from the Tourists whether on the borders or within the journey for using the countries facilities and transportation system , which contribute directly in GNP , Indirectly through opening new business small scale enterprises to support tourism infrastructure like hotels , restaurant or any private entertainment facility , which provide job opportunities , increase the individual annual Income , international tourism receipts became 1.07 trillion USD in 2012 by UNWTO reports (Holloway,2006 ).
2-Social and cultural People of the country can Enjoy the infrastructure created by the government or the privet sector to serve the tourism in their leisure time ( Theobald,2005 ) , Interaction between people globally from different countries increase Global awareness and understanding between nations and cultures , many countries attracts wide range of tourist in times of traditional carnivals and festivals , brazil Carnival drew around 4.9 million people attending the carnival in Rio which considered as largest carnival around the world (Brent,Crouch,2003)
3- Environmental Environmental impact of tourism on developing countries are quite high which helped directly for raising awareness of importance of the wild life , Danger of extinction of animal due to over hunting for a species , which drive many countries to take more attention of their attraction assets and provide safer environment , and tourism generate direct Fund for caring , developing and researches conducted on that Field ( Burns, novelli , 2008 ) .
Negative impact
Economical Creating a strong and competitive environment that can attract tourist is not quite easy task and not cheap as well providing better infrastructure for tourism cost a lot (Boniface , Cooper, 2009) , China considered to be top expenditure country on international tourism it was estimated about 102 billion USD in 2012 and Germany comes right after china with 85.9 million USD governments cut down part of the national income to invest in the Tourism industry it’s basically came from the tax payers and GNP, and most of the team Major hotels and restaurant brands get the benefits of this development and this is not in favor of locals , and many consider the money used for tourism industry can be used for more vital issues inside the country like health and education , and for same reason investing money in tourism can be quite risky and many factors affect it internally and externally like political situations , terrorism attacks on a country also natural disasters (McCool,Moisey,2001) .
Social and cultural In some countries really depends on tourism and entertainment industry and by that number of negative side effects start to appear in those countries Crimes and mobs, drugs and prostitution(Boniface , Cooper, 2009), Actually there are countries that named as destination for people seeking for this type of entertainment like Brazil , Costa Rica and Netherlands and other different countries which legalized or regulated prostitution as legal act covered by constitution and protected by law ( Theobald,2005 ) These types of behaviors give totally false image about the country culture and social state and may support exchange of bad habits between people from different cultures. (Brent,Crouch,2003).
Environmental Tourism can put high pressure on the environment for any regions , over exposing in some areas threat many type of living organisms and species in that region(McCool,Moisey,2001) , and increase in the pollution due to hotels and means of transportation used within the area, you will find more pressure on water and food supplies over consumption of water on unnecessary things like golf courts and swimming pools in hotels which mainly what depends on tourism industry , beside increase number of other different types of pollutions like Noise , solid wastes and sometime visual pollution( Burns, novelli , 2008 ).
Once a community becomes a tourist destination, the lives of residents in that community become affected by tourism activities (Jurowski, Uysal, & Williams, 1997) The effect of tourism on the whole world is undeniable, tourism is considered to be one of the strong economic pillars supporting global economy , but evidence strongly proofing that tourism is a double edge weapon as it threats is as strong as its strengths , tackling most of these threats can be taken by the governments , Currently Many countries start to regulate more developed rules and measurement to monitor and control tourism industry because it’s much better to neutralize any threat in the beginning before it turn to be a real threats and problem and by creating Global understanding about how serious is this issue ( Theobald,2005 ).

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