Tourism in the Process of Internationalisation

Published: 2021-07-23 09:50:06
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Tourism businesses operate globally and many have opted for a competitive advantage of internationalization. Technology, information and reduction of boundaries have created new forms of service companies, not only the large multinational corporations, but also small niche specialists. The growing importance of strategic alliances in creating networks of business relationships has become a trend also in tourism. Tourism has considered as the world’s largest and rapid growing industry of modern business world. It has a vital influence on economic development of a country.
Tourism sector brings tremendous opportunities as a fastest-growing economic sector in terms of foreign exchange earnings, creation of employment opportunities and raising purchasing power. As such tourism sector can play positive contribution towards enhancing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. Tourist destinations must establish identities that differentiate them from other destinations. Bangladesh is a new tourist destination country on the map of the world. Bangladesh has enormous potential to develop tourism because of its attractive natural beauty and rich cultural heritage.
Tourism can add value in Bangladeshi economy if proper marketing plan and strategy can be built and implemented for these purpose. However, this industry fails to reach its destination due to adequate marketing practices. This paper aims to show the internationalization process, expenditure of tourism, places of tourism which make to be internationally renounced, ways of attract tourists, international standard of hospitality, present scenario of tourism industry in Bangladesh, identifies the constraints and suggests remedial measures accordingly.
The study also suggests that government should formulate a ‘tourism policy’ immediately for the development of this industry. Both public and private level investment is required in the tourism sector and regional cooperation can bring benefits for Bangladesh. Key Words * Tourism * Internationalization * Scope * Economic development * Hospitality * International Trade * Contribution of Tourism to national economy * Methodology * Internationalization process * Objectives * Scopes * Renowned spots for Tourist Introduction
International tourism constitutes a new challenge to the process of change in contemporary societies towards what some have called a ‘new order’ on a worldwide basis. As a first approximation, and according to the established definition, international tourism consists simply of a person crossing national frontiers to stay for a limited period, and for other than professional reasons, in a foreign country. Tourism is thus considered, above all, as an individual act. But when these individuals are counted in their millions, this simple fact assumes a different dimension, a sociological dimension.
For through this movement of persons, and the massive penetration of foreigners into national societies, a process of internationalization is set in motion which, by its dynamic, causes a certain sort of change in more and more regions of the world. As many as 244 million people moved across borders in 1977, and every year sees a rise in this figure, despite apparently unfavorable economic circumstances. It is expected that these movements will show a growth rate of 2 to 3 per cent per annum over the years to come; between now and the year 2000, international tourist flows will have doubled.
The manner in which this phenomenon is usually presented and evaluated in the social discourse is ambiguous. Increased movement arouses euphoria and fear simultaneously. Euphoria is aroused because the opportunity to travel in the world is interpreted as progress to which modern societies aspire and also because tourism is considered as a source of wealth, through the business which it generates. Fear is aroused because this phenomenon, by reason of its subjective elements, appears to be linked to obscure impulses and motivations which, at the societal level, could engender a universalized and unchecked mobility.
In this context, it should be remarked that the growth of travel is generally interpreted in the official sector. Objectives of the study By today tourism has become the largest industry and trade sector in the world generating enough employment opportunities and earning huge amount of foreign exchange for the destination countries. It has created multifaceted impact on people’s pleasure, knowledge overall standard of living and culture of both the destination and tourist generating countries. In Bangladesh there are lots of possibilities in tourism industries.
The main thrust of the study has concentrated on the issues relevant to the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. However, the details of the objectives of this study in Bangladesh are given bellow: * To summarize the nature and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh; * To present the tourist facilities available in the country; * To evaluate the role of some tourism organizations operating in the country; * To measure the performance of world tourism sector as well as the performance of * Bangladesh tourism industry; To measure the satisfaction of visiting tourists on of different tourism services available in Bangladesh; * To identify the constraints to the development of tourism and prescribe necessary; * Suggestions for reforms and improvements of the tourism industry in Bangladesh; * To forecast and highlight the potentials of tourism development in the country; * To recommend or prescribe necessary suggestion for the reform and development of tourism in Bangladesh; * To gather some knowledge about tourism projects and spots of Bangladesh; * To learn about expenditure of tourism; To learn about the ways to attract tourist. Literature Review A substantial number of works on tourism as a subject has been done throughout the world. But a relatively few works and literatures on the development of tourism worldwide have been found as yet. Similarly, enough literatures on the same area of tourism industry in Bangladesh are not available. However, a few articles and research reports addressing the marketing issues and dealing with the problems of the tourism industry in a skin-deep manner have been available to the researcher.
As a consequence, literatures reviewed for this study include only a handful of papers and the few research reports. These are summarized as under: Kale and Weir (1986), in a study on the marketing of third world countries to the western travelers identified that people have country specific attracting and repelling factors affecting tourist’s choices and decisions regarding their travel to a country. They recommended that tourism department of the country concerned should uncover those factors and evolve suitable strategies accordingly for its development.
Panel Kerr Forster Associate’s Report (1988) mentioned that for the development of infrastructure, national airlines, and overall tourism in the country the government of Bangladesh has taken attempts to make substantial investments which require to be properly supported by effective management and marketing activities in order to meet the policy objectives and ensure a realistic return from these investments. The report also pointed out that the comfort, services and management of tourism firms in Bangladesh are all below the level expected by the international tourists and the foreign community residing in Bangladesh.
Much of the existing literatures reviewed above clearly indicate that the tourism industry in Bangladesh has not yet stood at a solid footing. Many reasons are there for the backwardness and underdevelopment of this industry. Through the government and the BPC has already taken several measures for the overall development of this industry, a lot of efforts is still required for this purpose. Scope of the Study The scope of the study extends to the following aspects: A. Coverage of the Study: The study has attempted to cover eight main areas.
These include the study of- (i) Nature and categories of tourist attractions in Bangladesh; (ii) tourism facilities in Bangladesh; (iii) tourism organizations in Bangladesh; (iv) tourism performance; (v) tourists’ satisfaction on Bangladesh tourism arrangements; (vi) constraints to the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh; (vii) Suggestions for reforms and improvements; and (viii) Potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh. (ix) The study has attempted both micro and macro level analyses.
At the micro level, activities of different tourism firms operating in the country have been analyzed. In the macro level analyses, the overall performance of the industry has been measured. B. Survey Area Coverage: The overall tourism attractions and facilities available in the country have been considered and the whole of Bangladesh is the survey area of this study. In the case of measurement of tourists’ satisfaction, tourists visiting any part of the country have been considered to include in the sample.
C. Study Period: The field survey has been conducted and the field level data have been collected during the months from November to February, which are the peak tourism seasons in Bangladesh. Data collected for this study have been tabulated during the month of March 2005. The preparation of the report, editing, and finalizing touch have been done during the period from August’ 05 March’ 06. Finally, the report has been typed during the month of April 2006. D. Samples Included:
The research problem along with its objectives and propositions indicate that data should be collected from those firms and parties who are directly or indirectly involved in the business activities of Bangladesh tourism industry, development process of tourism infrastructure or facilities in the country, and interaction process of rendering or receiving tourism services. As such, the scope of different categories of samples taken for this study is limited to the following: i. Tourism firms: Six types of tourism firms have been examined in this study.
These include BPC, Private Tour operators, Airlines, Travel Agencies, Hotels, and Restaurants. These firms are the major role players in the development and business activities of the tourism industry. Hotels and restaurants have been studied as they play important roles to serve tourist guests and in adopting tour operators’ services, and thus accelerating the development of tourism activities in Bangladesh. ii. Tourists: The study has included the domestic tourists. It has also chosen the foreign tourists visiting Bangladesh and foreign residents who have visited different destinations of the country.
It has basically confined itself to the study of tourists’ perceptions on different service arrangements of the tourism industry in Bangladesh. iii. Experts: Academicians, professional guides, travel and tourism writers, retired executives of different tourism firms have also been considered and included in the sample. They have been interviewed for opinion and judgment based information. The Research Gap The literatures reviewed earlier section clearly indicates that there has been a considerable expansion of tourism activities worldwide.
It is understood that a relatively little attention has been given by the professionals and researchers to the issues of tourism development. Therefore, the study on the development of tourism industry has been largely unexplored. As such, literatures on tourism development throughout the world are not enough. Bangladesh tourism industry, being at its infant stage, is of no exception from this. No comprehensive literature covering the same area has yet been available to the present researchers. Researchers in Bangladesh also do not seem to have much attention to the studies on the development of tourism industry.
Therefore, no comprehensive and worthy paper, research monograph, or research report on this issue of tourism industry in Bangladesh has yet come out. The very few literatures available in Bangladesh have tried to suggest the ways and means in the present context of the country for the development of the industry. These existing literatures on Bangladesh tourism are also with inadequate justification and skin-deep analysis. Therefore, these offer little help in developing a framework for further studies by the researchers.
As a result, Bangladesh tourism industry has failed to attract a sizeable number of foreign tourists, motivate them to stay longer, obtain better performance of the industry, and thus ensure sustained growth and development of the industry. Methodology of the study This point describes the research methods followed in this study. The research methods to follow depend on the problems identified, objectives set and propositions/ hypothesis drawn for the study. However, the details of research methods followed in solving the research problem, achieving the objectives, and assessing the research propositions have been described below.
With these ends in view, this paper has covered the contents such as tourism in wider sense, contribution of tourism to the economic development, expenditure of tourism, ways to attract tourists, international standard of hospitality, recommendations etc. For collecting information on various aspects of Bangladesh tourism we had to depend on the secondary sources of data and information. For this purpose we went through the publications of the following organizations: * Bangladesh Purgation Corporation (BPC). * Association of travel Agents of Bangladesh (ATAB). * Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. * UNDP UNESCO * WTO Besides, we interviewed the key personnel’s of the BPC, ATAB, Hotel Sonargaon, Hotel Ruposhi Bangla. In addition, we interviewed 50 foreign tourists, 10 Chinese restaurants and 10 travel agency owners, few tourism experts and other people who somehow were related to tourism. The respondents had been selected purposively. The Sources of data i. Primary data: Data pertaining to the potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh have been collected from the five key persons engaged with BPC and ten randomly selected tour operators through in-depth personal interview with pre-designed questionnaires.
In order to understand the impressions of the tourists, an in-depth face-to-face interview with 125 domestic tourists has been conducted. Another exit interview with another 125 foreign tourists has also been conducted at different hotel lounges and at the exit point of the departure lounge of Hazrat Sahajalal International Airport (HSIA). In the interview, respondents have answered some unstructured questions on their own and rated some other structured questions focused by the seven points on the Likert Scale discussed earlier.
Five MBA students of Dhaka University have been recruited as field-workers to visit the respondents firms, offices, airport departure lounge or residential hotels, and to make all kinds of investigations for primary data collection. A one-day orientation program has been conducted for the field-workers to brief them adequately about the topics of the study and issues of the questionnaires, and thus to teach them about the techniques to adopt in the interview process. Special attention has been given to introduce the field workers with different issues of the subject matter of he study. Some respondent executives/owners of tourism firms have taken time to provide answers and return the field in questionnaires. Besides, the process of identifying tourist respondents from different countries, occupations, ages, sexes has taken time and thus a total of three months have been spent to complete the field survey. ii. Secondary data: The research agenda made it necessary to review the available literatures and documents. It should again be mentioned again that enough secondary data have not been found due to unavailability of such data.
Whatever limited secondary data could be made available those have been incorporated effectively, logically and carefully in this study. For this, some relevant literatures on tourism in general have been collected from different newspapers, magazines, journals, periodicals, internets, and research reports. Souvenirs, brochures, travel handbooks, leaflet, and folders of different tour operators have also been found useful. Other published and unpublished materials of both the government and non-government agencies have also provided some required information.
Thereafter, necessary desk research on the available literatures has been conducted and proper adjustments made in light of the purposes of this study. Through the desk research, the collected information has been reviewed extensively to assimilate ideas for the research work, synthesize necessary concepts for the theoretical framework and justify logic of the researcher’s comments. A thorough review of literature has enabled the researchers to obtaining a coherent picture of the problem considered in this study.
Thus, theoretical propositions have been drawn and documented carefully to comply with the requirements of the study. An attempt has been made to provide enough logical interpretations throughout the report. Relevant descriptive exerts have also been used to provide the literature base, justify the arguments and prepare the theoretical framework of the report. Thus, attempt has been made to collect sufficient primary and secondary data from all the above mentioned sources to define the research problem, develop a theoretical base, raise necessary arguments, justify logic, identify the onstraints to the development of the tourism industry in Bangladesh, draw effective policy and managerial implications for it, and highlight potentials of tourism development in Bangladesh. Tools used for Study We have used the following tools: * Various kinds of informative chart * Statistics * Various kinds of informative table * Graph * Various kinds of pictures regarding required point * Books * Logo for regarding topics * Websites * Encyclopedia What do you mean by tourism in wider sense?
By simple definition, Tourism is a composite of activities, services, and industries that deliver a travel experience: transportation, accommodation, eating and drinking establishments, shops, entertainment, activity facilities and other hospitality services available for individuals or groups that are traveling away from home. But when we think about tourism primarily, we think about people visiting a particular place for sightseeing, visiting friends and relatives, taking a vacation and having a good time.
They may spend their leisure engaging in various sports sunbathing, singing, taking rides, touring, reading or simply enjoying the environment. If we consider the subject further, we may include in our definition of tourism people who are participating in a convention, a business conference or some other kind of business and professional activity as well as those who are taking a study tour under an expert guide or doing some kind of scientific research or study. The tourism industry is global. It is big business and will continue to grow.
Tourism can be defined as the science, art and business of attracting visitors, transporting them, accommodating them and graciously catering to their needs and wants. In recent years, virtually every country throughout the world has taken steps to increase its number of visitors. The decrease in the cost of air travel and continued development of technological resources such as internal have provided new opportunity for countries and individual tourism firms to promote tourism both within and outside their borders.
According to the definition of WTO, “tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. ” The concept of tourism is based on three main principles: * Providing recreation all within the community through involvement in tourism environment of low-income countries. * Subsidizing tourist arrivals poor people. * Participation of state, municipal and public institutions in the development of tourism.
So we can say that, tourism is a composite of activities, services, transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishment shops, entertainment facilities and other hospitality services available for individuals or groups that are travelling away from home. It encompasses all provides of visitors and visitor related services. Finally, tourism is the sum total of tourist expenditures within the borders of a nation or a political subdivision or a transportation-centered economic area of contiguous states or nations. How Tourism is Internationally Related?
The highest purpose of tourism is to become acquainted with people of different countries and places, because that furthers the understanding and appreciation that builds a better world for all. International tourism involves the exchange of knowledge and ideas and other worthy subject. Tourism is supposed to have a positive impact on world peace. Tourism is considered to be “A Vital Force for Peace” When people travel from one place to another with a desire to learn about custom, convention of country knowledge and understanding grows which lead to a better world.
Tourism is a wealth factor it has a huge impact on international trade. Trade shows can also be an important tourism and economic development generator and bring thousands of dollars into the coffers of hotels, restaurants and attractions. From the tourism perspective, trade shows are more than mere platforms for marketing one’s wears. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity people whose essential purpose is to relax often go from one country to another with a desire to have a good time and by doing this the visitor is creating wealth and better cooperation of countries in reference.
Thus we can say that if we examine the impact of tourism in glob in general is positive and its interrelationship is better. Tourism with its movement of people, national penetration of foreigners and by virtue of its dynamic nature is related internationally. Tourism & International Trade Tourism is a composite product (service) that enters into international trade flows as an invisible export item. It differs from other commodity exports in the sense that the consumer or the tourist has to consume the product in the exporting country.
It usually faces fewer trading restrictions than other exports. Moreover, it is often argued that tourism generates more pecuniary as well as non-pecuniary benefits and costs than other export industries. Does travel industry follow the dictates of international trade theories? For example, the popular version of the theory of Comparative Advantage suggests that differences in relative factor endowments serve as the main basis for international trade and a nation will have a comparative advantage in producing those goods or services in which it is abundantly endowed.
Applying the theory, the countries that possess an abundance of underutilized labor and natural resources are likely to have a comparative advantage in exporting tourism services. While it applies to some countries (such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Maldives, and Caribbean islands), there are many exceptions. For example, tourism is a major industry in USA, a country that does not have cheap labor. Also, United Kingdom neither has abundant natural resources nor cheap labor, yet it is a popular tourist destination.
Singapore has set another example that a nation characterized by labor shortage and virtually no natural resources can also emerge as a premier tourist destination. Comparative advantage is dynamic and changes over time as suggested by the well-known products Cycle theory. The concept has found numerous applications in tourism as experts studied the progression of a tourist attraction (resort) by applying stage-theoretic framework (for example, tourist Area Life Cycle theory).
In a recent article (Rex Toh, H Khan, and Ai-Jin Koh 2001), we proposed a new trade theoretic approach to study the relationship between the development stage of a country and the state of its tourism industry. We postulated that less-developed countries would generally be closer to an introductory stagey (net exporters of tourism) and the developed countries would be closer to a decline stage (net importers of tourism) based on travel balance, defined as net of travel exports over imports.
While the prediction of our model is yet to be substantiated with data for larger number of countries, we apply here a different investigative technique to study the relationship between international trade and tourism. Intuitively, one can argue that as a country makes economic advancement, most of its macroeconomic aggregates (or components of GDP) move upward and the movement of different variables (say merchandise trade and tourism services) over time can perhaps establish some kind of a pattern (or causality).
Countries with higher trading volumes (both exports and imports) are also likely to be more open economies and thereby leading to a more developed (accounting for a greater percentage of the country is GDP) tourism industry. Larger travel industry also leads to expansion of trade as the requirements for tourist commodities (for open economies such as Singapore, 29 cents of a tourist dollar goes out of the country through import requirement) increase overall trade flows.
At the same time, as friendship between countries (as well as people) evolves through trading of various goods and services, travel becomes more widespread. Kulendran and Wilson (2000) tried to investigate the trade-tourism nexus econometrically by using Australian data (for her travel and tourism partners) and it is the only published study in this area of tourism research until date. How can tourism influence international trade? If we concentrate on business travel alone (visitors who travel mainly for business purposes), the idea is pretty straightforward.
Business visitors travel to a country (tourist destination) for the purpose of buying certain products from that country (and thus contribute to its export earnings) or selling certain products to that country (accounting for its import purchases). Successful business trips therefore directly create a flow of exports and/or imports in subsequent periods. Such visits may also create a lot of positive externalities (indirect effects) on both trade and tourism.
Increased business travel may motivate others (particularly friends and relatives of those who are involved in business) to take holiday or pleasure trips to those destinations either alone or accompanied by their business friends. Moreover, growing business transactions and dealings create interest (curiosity) among the consumers about the products as well as source countries and these may subsequently lead to a surge in the flow of business/holiday visits to those countries. Can other visitors (other than business visitors) influence trade as well?
The answer is eyes’. International visitors, whether they go for visiting friends/relatives, studying overseas, medical treatments, or purely for pleasure or holidaying, may identify (and subsequently seize) business opportunities that could lead to either export sales or import purchases in subsequent periods. Moreover, tourists may consume/demand certain types of products that are not produced in that country (and therefore have to be imported) leading to a surge in import requirements for that country.
In open economies such as Singapore and Hong Kong, tourists spend substantially on imported goods and services and thus contribute to import flows (as well as total trade), though technically speaking, these constitute an outflow of tourist spending (usually called import leakage) in those countries. Contribution of tourism to the economic development Bangladesh is a developing country with a large population. The average GDP growth for the last few years varies from 5-6%. RMG industry is the source of major foreign currency. In the recent time there is a competition in the RMG sector from the position in RMG.
The promising alternative in this case may be tourism. Bangladesh is a country of natural beauty. Some of her parts are covered by Hills and some other parts by the rivers. It has the longest beach of the world, the Sundarbans with biodiversity. There are many archaeological sites also which can easily attract foreign tourist. Tourists are ready to visit these places and also to pay. But there are some problems to market the sector. There is a variety of economic impact of tourism. Tourism activities bring changes in sales, income and employment in a region. These effects are distinguished in direct, indirect and induced.
The total immediate effect is the sum of all direct, indirect and induced effect. Effects that are caused from immediate effect of changes in tourist expenditure are called direct effect. There is a backward linkage of some of the industries with the hotels. These industries supply some of the products or services to the hotels. Due to the increased number of tourist supply of these product or services is required in massive volume which is called indirect effect. For example the indirect effects of tourism concern all sectors of the economy, especially agro-food industries and all tourism elated services such as air transport. Induced effects are the change in economic activities resulting from household spending of income earned directly or indirectly as a result from tourism spending. Expenditure of Tourism International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification.
For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U. S. dollars. Country| 2008| 2009| 2010| Albania | 1,644,000,000| 1,692,000,000 | 1,454,000,000 | Argentina | 5,962,000,000| 5,766,000,000 | 51,000,000 | Australia | 24,348,000,000| 21,459,000,000 | 264,000,000 | Bahrain | 704,000,000| 597,000,000 | 369,000,000 | Bangladesh | 735,000,000| 651,000,000 | 684,000,000 | Botswana | 240,000,000| 231,000,000 | 244,000,000 | Brazil | 13,269,000,000| 12,897,000,000 | 26,000,000 | Bulgaria | 2,602,000,000| 1,955,000,000 | |
Canada | 33,908,000,000| 30,232,000,000 | 265,000,000 | India| 12,083,000,000| 9,310,000,000| 10,549,000,000| France| 50,021,000,000| 45,806,000,000| 48,439,000,000| United States | 118,746,000,000| 105,745,000,000| 109,764,000,000| United Kingdom| 83,584,000,000| 61,133,000,000| 61,368,000,000| Expenditure in Bangladesh The international tourism; expenditure (US dollar) in Bangladesh was last reported at 835000000 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012. International tourism expenditures are of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payment to foreign carriers for international transport.
These expenditures may include those by residents travelling abroad as some-day visitors, except in case where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U. S. dollars. This includes a historical data chart, news and forecast for international tourism expenditures (US dollar) in Bangladesh. World Bank Indicators-Bangladesh-Travel & Tourism | Previous| Last| International tourism; expenditures for passenger transport items (US dollar) in Bangladesh| 374000000. 0| 551000000. | International tourism; expenditures for travel items (US dollar) in Bangladesh| 156000000. 0| 184000000. 0| International tourism; expenditures (% of total imports) in Bangladesh| 2. 7| 2. 9| International tourism; expenditures (US dollar) in Bangladesh| 530000000. 0| 735000000. 0| International tourism; number of arrivals in Bangladesh| 289000. 0| 467000. 0| International tourism; number of departures in Bangladesh| 2327000. 0| 875000. 0| International tourism; receipts for passenger transport items (US dollar) in Bangladesh| | | International tourism; receipts for travel items (US dollar) in Bangladesh| 76000000. | 75000000. 0| International tourism; receipts (% of total exports) in Bangladesh| 0. 5| 0. 4| International tourism; receipts (US dollar) in Bangladesh| 76000000. 0| 75000000. 0| Places of tourism which make to be internationally renowned Bangladesh is a land of scenic beauty. There is much natural beautiful scenery in Bangladesh. There are also many beautiful places in this country. A description of places of tourism which can be internationally renounced is given below: Naturally Attractive Locations of Bangladesh Cox’s Bazar
Miles of golden sands, towering cliffs, surfing waves, rare conch shells, colorful pagodas, Buddhist temples and tribes, delightful seafood—this is Cox’s Bazar, the tourist capital of Bangladesh, Having the world’s longest (120 kilometers. ) beach sloping gently down to the blue waters of the Bay of Bengal, Cox’s Bazar is one of the popular tourist spots in the country. With a beach that is one of the contenders for the world’s longest (120 kilometers), sloping gently down to the blue waters of the Bay of Bengal. In the east lie the hilly and forested regions of Tripura, Myanmar. Kuakata
A rare scenic attractiveness places on the southernmost tip of Bangladesh in the district of Patuakhali. It has a large fabulous beach from where one can get the unique opportunity of seeing both the sunup and sun setting. It is situated at a distance of 70 km, from the district headquarters of Patuakhali. Access to the area is difficult. Guided Tours in Kuakata TRAVEL BANGLADESH (TRAVELBD) arranges guided package tours for groups of 2 to 8 and above from Dhaka to Kuakata. Sundarbans – home of the Royal Bengal Tiger and Mangrove Forest Placed near Khulna about 320 Km. west of Dhaka.
Here in the south, diffuse over an area of about 6000 sq. km. of deltaic swamps along the coastal belt of Khulna is the biggest mangrove forest, Sundarbans (attractive forest) the home of the Royal Bengal Tiger. Its compact rain forests are crossed by a network of rivers and creeks. One finds here tides flowing in two directions in the same creek and often tigers swimming across a river or huge crocodiles basking in the sun. Other wildlife in this region is cheetahs, spotted dears, moneys, pythons, wild bears and hyenas. The forest is reachable by river from Khulna and Mongla.
There are relaxing houses for the guests to stay and enjoy the pure nature with all its charm and majesty. Jaflong Jaflong is a natural tourist spot in the Division of Sylhet, Bangladesh. It is located in Gowainghat Upazila of Sylhet District and situated at the border between Bangladesh and the Indian state of Meghalaya. It is just below the mountain range. Jaflong is famous for its stone collections and is home of the Khasi tribe. Jaflong is one of the most attractive tourist spots in Sylhet division. It is about 60 km from Sylhet town and takes two hours drive to reach there.
Jaflong is also a scenic spot nearby amidst tea gardens and rare beauty of rolling stones from hills. It is situated besides the river Mari in the lap of Hill Khashia. Rangamati- the heart of Lake District Road amid green fields and zigzag hills will take you to Rangamati, the headquarters of Rangamati Hill District which is a wonderful depository of scenic splendors with flora and fauna of different descriptions. The township is located on the western bank of the Kaptai Lake. Rangamati is a favorite holiday resort because of its attractive landscape, scenic beauty, lake, colorful tribes (Chakma, Marma etc. its flora and fauna, tribal museum, hanging bridge, homespun textile products, ivory jewelry and the tribal men and women who fashion them. For tourists the attraction of Rangamati are many, tribal life, fishing, speed boat cruising, water skiing, hiking, bathing or just enjoying nature as it is. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation provides suitable hotel and cottage lodging, catering, speed boat and other facilities at Rangamati. Kaptai A pleasant and picturesque drive of 64 km. from Chitagong brings you to tremendous vastness of emerald and blue water ringed with hot forest.
It is the famous man prepared Kaptai lake (680 sq. km) formed by damming the Karnaphuli river. Only 3 km. from Kaptai along Chittagong Road, lies the ancient Chit Morong Buddist temple having attractive Buddist statues. Other places of interest in the Hill Tract districts include Chandraghone, Khagrachari and Bandarban all in picturesque surrounding. Foy’s Lake Foy’s Lake is a man-made lake in Chittagong, Bangladesh. It was created in 1924 by constructing a dam across the stream that came down from the hills in the northern part of Chittagong.
The purpose of creating an artificial lake was to provide water to the residence of railway colony. It was named after Mr Foy who was a Railway engineer and believed to materialized the project. Pahartali was basically a railway town with workshop yard and shed. A good number of railway employees lives there. Presently, a carriage workshop, diesel workshop, loco shed, laboratory, stores, electric workshop, school (established in 1924) are located. The area belongs to Railway. However, an amusement park, managed by the Concord group, is located here. Locations with Historical Value in Bangladesh
Ahsan Manzil Ahsan Manzil was the official residential palace and seat of the Dhaka Nawab Family. This magnificent building is situated at Kumartoli along the banks of the Buriganga River in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The construction of this palace was started in the year 1859 and was completed in 1869. It is constructed in the Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. To preserve the cultural and history of the area, the palace became the Bangladesh National Museum on 20 September1992. Lalbagh Fort Lalbagh Fort formerly known as Fort Aurangabad is an incomplete 17th century Mughal fort complex in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The construction was started in 1678 AD by Mughal Subahdar Muhammad Azam Shah. For long the fort was considered to be a combination of three buildings (the mosque, the tomb of Bibi Pari and the Diwan-i-Aam), two gateways and a portion of the partly damaged fortification wall. But recent excavations carried out by the Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh have revealed the existence of other structures and it is now possible to guess a more or less complete picture of the fort. It is situated in the Lalbagh of Old Dhaka in the capital. Lalbagh Fort is one of the rarest Mughal architectures in Bangladesh.
Sixty Dome Mosque The Sixty Dome Mosque more commonly known as Shat Gambuj Mosque is a mosque in Bangladesh, the largest in that country from the Sultanate period. It has been described as “the most impressive Muslim monuments in the whole of the Indian subcontinent. ” The construction of the mosque was started in 1442 and it was completed in 1459. The mosque was used for prayer purposes. It was also used as a madrasa and assembly hall. It is located in Bagerhat district in southern Bangladesh which is in the division of Khulna. It is about 3 miles far from the main town of Bagerhat.
Bagerhat is nearly 200 miles away from Dhaka which is the capital of Bangladesh. This mosque has been listed as a world heritage by UNESCO. Mainamati- seat of lost dynasties On the slopes of these hills lie scattered a treasure of information about the early Buddhist (7th-12th Century A. D. ). At Salban in the center of the point, excavations laid bare a big Buddhist Vihara (monastery) and imposing central sharine. It has revealed valuable information about the rule of the Chandra and Deva dynasties which flourished here from the 7th to 12th century. The whole range of hillocks run for about 18 km. nd is studded with more than 50 sites. A site museum houses the archaeological finds which include terra cotta plaques, bronze statues and casket, coins, jewelry, utensils, pottery and votive stupas embossed with Buddhist inscriptions. Mahasthangarh- the oldest archeological site Mahasthangarh is situated 18 Kilometers north to Bogra town. It is the oldest archaeological site of Bangladesh on the western bank of river Karatoa. The spectacular site is an imposing landmark in the area having a fortified long enclosure. Beyond the fortified area, other ancient ruins fan out within a semicircle of about 8 km radius.
Several isolated mounds, the local names of which are Govinda Bhita Temple, Khodia Pathar Mound, Mankalir Kunda, Parasuramer Bedi, Jiyat Kunda etc. surround the fortified city. This 3rd century B. C. archaeological site is still held to be of great sanctity by the Hindus. Every year (mid-April) and once in every 12 years (December) thousands of Hindu devotees join the bathing ceremony on the bank of river Karatoa. A visit to the Mahasthangarh site museum will open up for one a wide variety of antiquities, ranging from terra-cotta objects to gold ornaments and coins recovered from the site.
Also noteworthy are the shrine of Shah Sultan Bulki Mahisawary and Gokul Moth in the neighborhood of Mahasthangarh. Paharpur – the largest Buddhist seat of learning Paharpur is a small village 5 km. west of Jamalganj in the better Rajshahi district where the remains of the most main and the biggest known monastery south of the Himalayas has been excavated. With elaborate gateway complex on the north there are 45 cells on the north and 44 in each of the other three sides with a total number of 177 rooms. The structural design of the pyramidal cruciform temple is profoundly influenced by those of South – East Asia, especially Myanmar and Java.
It had taken its name from a high heap, which looked like pahar or hillock. A site museum built recently houses the representative collection of things recovered from the area. The excavated findings have also been preserved at the Varendra Research Museum at Rajshahi. The antiquities of the museum include terra-cotta plaques, images of different Gods and Goddesses, potteries, coin inscriptions, ornamental bricks and other minor clay objects. World’s Most Visited Tourist Attractions Louvre Museum, France
The Musee du Louvre in English, the Louvre Museum or simply The Louvre—is one of the world’s largest museums, and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, France, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (district). Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square metres (652,300 square feet). With more than 8 million visitors each year, the Louvre is the world’s most visited museum. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property.
As of 2008, the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings. The world famous painting Mona Lisa of Leonardo da Vinci is in this museum. Petra of Ma’an, Jordan Petra is a historical and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is a rose city. Petra stands in the southern area in Jordan.
Established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans. it is a symbol of Jordan, as well as its most-visited tourist attraction. It lies on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. UNESCO has described it as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”. Petra was chosen by the Smithsonian Magazine as one of the “28 Places to See before You Die.
Christ the Redeemer Christ the Redeemer is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; considered the largest Art Deco statue in the world and the 5th largest statue of Jesus in the world. It is 30 metres (98 ft) tall, not including its 8 metres (26 ft) pedestal, and its arms stretch 28 metres (92 ft) wide. It weighs 635 tonnes and is located at the peak of the 700-metre (2,300 ft) Corcovado Mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. A symbol of Brazilian Christianity, the statue has become an icon for Rio de Janeiro and Brazil.
It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone, and was constructed between 1926 and 1931. The Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”. Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles.
In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. While the white domed marble mausoleum is the most familiar component of the Taj Mahal, it is actually an integrated complex of structures. The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen. The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma’mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer, though some argue it was Isa Muhammad Affendi.
It was listed among the seven wonders in the list announced in 2007. The Great Pyramid of Giza The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BCE. Initially at 146.  metres (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid’s construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. Ways to Attract Tourists
Bangladesh is a beautiful and exotic country with colorful traditions and centuries of history. However, the country can be difficult to maneuver for a tourist visiting Bangladesh. Much of Bangladesh’s infrastructure has not been updated since the British left in 1947, so transportation and facilities, while available, have yet to be modernized. If Bangladesh wants to establish itself as a solid travel destination and increase tourism, government and business should take steps to make the country more hospitable to foreign travelers. Some suggestions listed below: * Bangladesh infrastructure and public services are antiquated or absent.
In both big cities and small villages, open sewers and inadequate plumbing are widespread. Mounds of garbage along the sides of the road are common. Public restroom facilities, even if available, are poorly maintained. Often the only sanitary amenities available are at big luxury hotels. Bangladesh needs to improve its public services and foster basic hygiene if it wants to appeal to the foreign tourist. This means modernizing its sewer systems to stop the spread of disease, creating more public housing to get rid of the shantytowns and implementing regular trash disposal measures.
Once Bangladesh is cleaned up, it will be a more inviting place to visit. * Another issue with an adverse effect on Bangladesh’s tourism is its widespread environmental pollution. Air quality throughout Bangladesh is notoriously bad, since there are no curbs on emissions and lax enforcement to prevent gross polluters Air pollution is beginning to show its effects on prominent tourist landmarks. In recent years, toxic air has damaged the ancient marble of the monument, jeopardizing its beauty and requiring significant repair. * Water quality is also inconsistent.
With improper sewage treatment and no curbs on water polluters, potable water for drinking and cooking is difficult to come by. Outbreaks of waterborne diseases, such as cholera and dysentery, are common, especially in rural villages with few clean water practices. * If Bangladesh wants to encourage tourism, it needs to act to improve the quality of its air and water so Bangladeshis and tourists alike can breathe the air and drink the water freely. * Bangladesh’s transportation system is also in need of a serious overhaul. Although cars and trucks traverse Bangladesh’s roads, laws for operating vehicles are widely ignored.
Often the result is pure chaos, as cars, trucks, bicycles and rickshaws drive into opposing traffic and ignore traffic lights to get where they need to go. Fatal car and truck accidents are not uncommon. For a tourist visiting Bangladesh, the experience of traveling along Bangladesh’s lawless roadways can induce cardiac arrest. * While Bangladesh also has an extensive railway system, due to overcrowding and poor maintenance, this mode of transportation is not much better. Trains are frequently so crowded that people sit on the roofs of moving trains or hang out the windows.
While a rare breed of adventurous tourist may find traveling on Bangladesh as trains exciting, the majority of tourists might find using Bangladesh’s railways highly inconvenient. * Bangladesh needs to enforce its traffic laws and reduce railway overcrowding so that visiting tourists will have an easier time traveling from place to place. * As Bangladesh’s population grows, forests are cleared to make room for more housing and development. The destruction of these forests leads to a loss of habitat for many of Bangladesh’s famed fauna, such as Bengal tigers, Asian elephants and Bangladesh ring neck parrots.
If Bangladesh does not make greater efforts to reduce this loss of habitat, tourists searching for safari like encounters with the animals made famous in Rudyard Kipling’s “Jungle Book” will be out of luck. Bangladesh needs to preserve ecotourism by protecting its forests and the animals that inhabit them. * In addition to making Bangladesh a more hospitable place to visit, the country needs to highlight the unique sights and offerings it has that are unavailable anywhere else. The Cox’s bazaar one of the obvious unique destinations to visit. However, the country has many more places to visit that foreign tourists may not know about.
Bagerhat , also known as the City of Mosques, is a popular travel destination for Bangladeshis but it is not widely known to foreigners. The beaches of Bangladesh are a tropical paradise but are also relatively unknown to the rest of the world. * Bangladesh needs to market itself to the world as a unique country with much to offer the visiting tourist. Bangladesh’s government should be cognizant of the different types of tourists that may want to visit the country history. Bangladesh should take advantage of the culture and market itself accordingly.
Business and government interests should consider collaborating to improve and modernize Bangladesh’s infrastructure. Not only will this increase tourism, but it will also increase foreign investment International Standard of Hospitality Hospitality is more than a profession, it is a life style. It is a challenging and exciting career that involves not only skills, but your whole person. In a global society things are changing so fast that we need to keep up not only with the latest technology, but also with the new ways to relate to our multicultural customers and co-workers.
First impressions in hospitality are critical. International Hospitality Association (IHA) an organization founded in 2002 by a group of experts is not a profit oriented business but it is situated to help members to be more competitive and successful in the hospitality industry. Their goals are mentioned below: * To promote hospitality industry standards and its related occupation standards. * To provide current hospitality industry information and resources. * To promote and share experiences on hospitality internationally. * To provide professional training on hospitality industry. To provide professional consulting and services on hospitality industry. * To host event to celebrate excellence. Providing best foods or accommodation isn’t everything about hospitality the most important thing is the spirit of hospitality if all the components are intact hat provides stimulating travel experiences but the spirit of hospitality remains missing then everything will go in vain. The travel must not feel that s/he is just cold source of revenue he or she needs to feel welcomed this small but important gesture will have a huge impact on hospitality industry. Some Standard Hospitality: Tourist from other countries should be given an extra right in every aspect of movement. * People should be helpful to them * They should be given extra security * Special transportation for them * Sincere hospitability for them * Sincerity to their financial activities Problems of tourism in Bangladesh compare to international context Forty years has elapsed of Bangladesh’s tourism industry, yet we still see it in a nascent position in comparison to our neighboring countries. Despite having all the potential to flourish, tourism in this country has been growing at a very slow pace.
Bangladesh is not known as a tourist destination in the international tourism market. Only 3 lacs foreign tourists came to Bangladesh in 2010, of which more than 70 percent came for business and official purposes. The contribution of the earning from tourism to the country’s GDP is less than 1 percent. The sector got recognition as an industry in 1999. But it never received attention from the government to become a vibrant industry. Whereas many countries which started much later than Bangladesh, for example – Maldives, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos PDR – have developed their tourism industry much faster than this country.
In 1998 Bangladesh received 171,961 tourists and Cambodia received only 96,000 tourists. After 11 years in 2009, Bangladesh could attract only 267,000 tourists and Cambodia more than 2 million tourists. This comparison indicates discrepancy in the degree of initiative by two different countries within a same span of time. The lack of development of the tourism industry of Bangladesh can be attributed to multiple reasons like less-prioritization of tourism by all previous governments, lack of budgetary allocation and scarcity of trained people in the industry.
There is also a lack of publicity and marketing activities. We lag behind in projecting our attractions to international tourists through advertisements in international print and electronic media, as our neighboring countries do. We have to do this for enhancing the positive image of our country and for introducing our prime tourist attractions as well as our vibrant culture. But, there is a lack of sufficient budgetary allocation. We need to develop an effective brand name for tourism. We have never tried to understand that branding not only helps tourism of the country, it encourages foreign investment as well.
A tourism branding campaign called ‘Beautiful Bangladesh’ has been developed, but according to the tourism stakeholders of the country it does not wholly reflect the tourist attractions of the country. Tour operators who bring foreign tourists are raising demands to mend it. Bangladesh, which has so many positive aspects, needs to rebuild its brand as a country. Apart from the meager budgetary allocation of the government, appropriate plans and programs for tourism development – short term, long term and medium term – was absent before 90’s. Furthermore, in the planning process there were lots of discrepancies.
Due to the absence of proper planning, even some infrastructure developments that require a small budget could not be accomplished. For attracting more foreign tourists, we need to turn tourist attractions into tourism products i. e. finished products to sell. Appropriate infrastructural development, super-structure development, introduction of waste management systems and sustainability of the tourist attractions for our future posterity are most essential. We name Cox’s Bazar as our tourist capital but recreational activities on the beach are very scanty.
Tourists do not find any night-life activities, after spending the day at the beach, but to sleep in hotel rooms. We should understand that tourists do not come here to sleep idly in a hotel. They love to remain busy through experiencing different memorable activities. We need to make the tourists busy in different activities all the time and bring out money from their pockets. Tourists come to spend money not take it back. On the other hand, whatever development has taken place at Cox’s Bazar is unplanned and uncontrolled. Appropriate regulation is absent there.
Still there is no proper water and sewerage system; gas connection is absent; only a limited number of flights land there. Kuakata – a second priority beach for tourists – cannot be reached very easily. Though road communication has improved from before, tourists tend to avoid going there more than once, due to the lack of standard facilities. The archaeological sites in the north-west of Bangladesh are also popular with tourists. But, due to the absence of interpreters and facilities, tourists do not make overnight stays. Every year many domestic and foreign tourists visit Paharpur – a world heritage site.
They can reach Paharpur in the late afternoon by starting very early from Dhaka. But after a short while at Paharpur, the sun sets. So they become worried where to make a night halt, because there are no hotels at Naogaon or Joypurhat district town. At the other famous archaeological sites, proper interpretation signage and educated guides are not found. Sufficient numbers of litter bins are not installed along the sites. Some other problems of tourism sector in Bangladesh are given bellow: * Tourism sites are not explored, extracted and managed. * Lack of investment. Low quality services. * Lack of safety, security and hygienic. * Lack of infrastructural development. * Visa requirement and complex visa procedures. * Absence of sales plan and public relation activities. * Lack of private initiatives in tourism development. * Bangladesh cannot offer tourist products and destination packages exclusively to local and foreign tourists. As a result, tourists have to go back to their home with low level of satisfaction. * The number of supply chain member in the tourism industry is not sufficient to build up a strong base. Small number of tour operators, insufficient national airlines and insignificant role of travel agencies. * Shortage of professional guide. * Price of some tourism components like the star and standard hotel rooms, food items, package tours and river cruise programs are much higher those of neighboring countries like India and Nepal. * Lacking of promotional and marketing activities of tourism by both public and private sector. * Political instability of the country * Harassment by the police and the broker in the airport * Language barrier of the people of the country * Conservative social and religious systems Strong competition within the region, barriers to overcome the image crisis of the country * Lack of awareness among the mass people regarding the benefits of tourism both locally and internationally * Illegal hunting and fishing in Sundarbans create loss of valuable wildlife * Absence of sufficient trained safe guards in the beaches to aware and save the tourists in case of emergency * Shortage of sufficient accommodation, food and beverage services and other amusement services * Tourists presently hold misconceptions about Bangladesh as a tourist’s destinations.
Foreigners now know Bangladesh as a poverty, baggers, flood, political unrest and corruption * Absence of proper tourism policy * Political collision between tribal and Bengali people Recommendations or suggestions to improve tourism internationally The following suggestions for the betterment of the tourism industry in Bangladesh: * Positive image of our tourism industry must be expressed by our diplomats, ambassadors, consular representing Bangladesh in different countries of the world. Bangladeshi representatives abroad can act as overseas office for the wholesale tour operators who conduct inbound tours.
Billboard, leaflets, brochure, magazines and other promotional materials can be displayed indifferent places in home and abroad. Local people have to be informed about the attractions rich in history, culture, and heritage. * Different beaches, rivers and other wetlands have to be converted with various establishment activities like river cruise, boating, beach volleyball, waterskiing, fishing, etc. along with boatel based food and accommodation specially in Sundarbans area. * There is lack of security and safety on travels and in the parks and tourists destinations in Bangladesh.
Therefore, the adequate safety and security of the tourists should be ensured to remove negative image. * Full-fledged tourism training institutes have to be established in a good number in different region so that they could produce skilled professionals to satisfy the needs and demand of the tourist. * Adventure tourism like trekking, hiking, mountaineering, hunting in different hilly areas must be established by building up different clubs and organizations. * To build more eco-park, safari park and wildlife sanctuary especially in Sundarbans, Hill tracts and different potential areas like Dula Hazra and Madhabkunda. Tourism facilities and services like accommodation, food and beverage, entertainments, travel agents, to reoperations, shopping malls, supermarkets, transporters have to be established in good number in international standard in different tourist areas by public and private sectors. * Unexplored area like Parkirchar, Cheradip, Sandweep, and Hatia must be taken into consideration to explored properly and established all tourist facilities there for the sake of the development of tourism. * Ecological balance must be maintained by preserving forests, wildlife flora and fauna.
It is also to be ensured that illegal fishing, hunting, smuggling trees and animal bodies must be prohibited in those areas. * The present legal formalities to come in Bangladesh for the foreigners are strict and rigid. Therefore, the existing formalities are to be made easy so that, the foreigners get interests to visit in Bangladesh. * Tourist fair can be arranged in an adequate number in home and abroad to inform the latest updates of our tourism products, services and overall tourism industry to attract the tourist. Government can formulate long term and short term master plan for the overall tourism development by growing interest to the investors and commercial organizations. * Foreign experts and consultants should hire on the recommendation of the project funders like World Bank, IMF. * The largest portion of tourists visiting Bangladesh uses airways only international airport, Dhaka. Expansion in also needed for tourist charters not only in Dhaka but also in Chittagong, Sylhet, Barisal, Rajshahi, Comilla and Dinajpur. Tourism in educational curriculum is to be initiated; subjects should be introduced in the High School level. * Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation, Bangladesh Biman and Civil Aviation Authority should be working in partnership for the overall development of tourism in Bangladesh and also for promoting tourism abroad as per their areas of operation. * Tourism Call Centers may be introduced like ‘Medical Call Centers’ and ‘Legal Call Centers’ to keep potential tourists informed about the tourism products, facilities and services available in all over Bangladesh. The study found that major portion of tourist come in Bangladesh for other purposes than tourism purpose, so to attract tourists to visit Bangladesh through marketing of its tourists attractions, effective promotion, recreation and entertainment should be organized. * Both the foreign and the private sectors’ investment are quite insufficient in tourism. This paper suggests * Taking necessary policies to attract the investments. Conclusion It is known that researchers dealing with quantitative research may use many standard statistical tools to test the hypothesis developed in their research.
But there is no standard guideline to test the theoretical propositions of the qualitative research. However, in order to evaluate or verify the five propositions considered in the ‘Research Methods’ chapter of this report, the researchers have emphasized putting logic and raising arguments. The study has found that the infrastructure necessary to develop the tourism industry s yet absent in Bangladesh. Lack of smooth transport and easy communication networks, absence of adequate accommodations, irregular power supply, etc, are few examples that affect the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh.
Therefore, on the basis of the above findings of this study, the first proposition could be considered true. There are only 32 tour operators, 2 airlines, and 235 travel agencies mostly located in Dhaka City and working in Bangladesh. These numbers are not adequate to attract a significant number of tourists and meet the demands of tourists visiting the country. These firms are the channel members of the tourism industry. The role played by the domestic and foreign channel members is not sufficient to meet the present needs of the industry as well as the market.
The study found that the “cooperation of the channel members in the source countries” scored only 2. 83 indicating quite dissatisfactory impressions of the respondent tourists on their performance. Some of the tour operating forms working in this field are not experienced with tourism activities and even fully equipped with necessary accommodation facilities, transport vehicles, and efficient guides. The travel agencies are not playing any important role in connection with tourism activities in Bangladesh other than ticketing for their customers.
Thus the second proposition could be considered partially true. The performance of the tourism industry in Bangladesh seems to be poor. The overall mean satisfaction score of the tourism arrangements in Bangladesh stands at 4. 01 indicating moderately satisfactory/efficient/reasonable performance. The number of tourist arrivals is about 2 lacs only which is relatively much lower than the neighboring countries. Foreign currency earnings and employment generation of this sector also show a gloomy picture.
The position of Bangladesh tourism industry in the world of tourism is at the lowest end. At present, Bangladesh finds a place at the bottom of the list of tourist importing countries. Therefore, the third proposition is also true. Realizing the prospect of tourism, The GOB has already taken some steps (mentioned earlier) for the development this sector. It has declared tourism as an industry. Prepared National Tourism Policy, offered some incentives for the investors to encourage their involvement in this sector, and constructed new hotels-motels I the destination areas.
Yet the potentials of tourism in Bangladesh have remained unexplored. Every successive government promised a lot for the development of this sector. But they did not seem to pay the needed attention to implement their commitment. Hence, a lot of efforts are still required to give the industry a solid footing and a real sense of direction. In the case of the last proposition, Bangladesh is yet hopeful to attract a large section of tourists and develop this sector in the near future.
Though the country may not have the world-renowned attractions, it does have something special to offer to the tourists. As tourists are now changing their outlook, avoiding popular tourism circuits and heading towards natural and cultural attractions, Bangladesh has bright prospect to attract those expect to become an important destination by adopting effective strategies and by promoting its unexplored and unbeaten natural and cultural attractions. References Newspapers * The Daily Star * New Age * Financial Express Magazines * Forbes Time Journals * National Geography * Bangladesh Economic Review Website * Bangladesh Tourism Board (http://www. tourismboard. gov. bd) * Wikipedia (www. wikipedia. com) * Encyclopedia Britanica (http://www. britannica. com/) * Youtube (http://www. youtube. com/) * New Seven Wonders (www. new7wonders. com) * UNESCO World Heritage Site (http://whc. unesco. org) * Bangladesh Parzatan Corporation (http://www. parjatan. gov. bd/) * World Tourism Organization (http://unwto. org) * The World Bank Group (http://www. worldbank. org/)

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