Learning theorists: Bandura, Lave and Wenger, Salomon View of the learning process: Interaction /observation in social contexts. Movement from the periphery to the centre of a community of practice Locus of learning: Learning is in relationship between people and environment. Purpose in education: Full participation in communities of practice and utilization of resources Educator’s role: Works to establish communities of practice in which conversation and participation can occur. Manifestations in adult learning: Socialization; Social participation; Associationalism; Conversation REFERENCE: Merriam, S. and Caffarella (1991, 1998) Learning in Adulthood.
A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2. WHAT ARE THE THEORIES OF LEARNING DO YOU THINK HAVE BEEN APPLIED BY YOUR PAST TEACHERS? There are many different types of learning theories that are used to help guide individuals through the teaching and or learning process. After reviewing the different theories of learning, I was able to found out that all of these theories was been utilized by my past teachers. All of my instructors from the primary education up to the present in the graduate program apply behavioral theory in terms of providing positive reinforcements after an appropriate response. Positive reinforcements are verbal praise, good grades, and prizes.
For example, way back on my elementary days I always study hard to get high grades and be on the top students in our class for me to receive a praise from my dad because I always want him to be proud of me although I know my parents will buy me a material thing as a reward for my hard work. In this situation my behavior was shaped through a positive reinforcement and this will increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. After my primary education, then here comes high school, college and masters where students rely on themselves for answers. I noticed that there was a shift of method our teacher handle our learning.
They usually employ cognitivism, wherein the students construct knowledge rather than acquiring it. Teachers use visual aids and physical objects to reinforce concepts. We are pushed to think critically and build on concepts we have already learned since cognitivism implies discovery learning. When I choose nursing as my college course I saw situational learning theory which involves participation in a community of my practice where we learn from observing other people. Initially as nursing students have to undergo on the job training and be circulated in different areas of the hospital and also at the community setting to learn at the periphery.
Even before acquiring the nurse staff position, one must undergo a trainee or preceptorship and as we become more competent we move more to the centre of the particular position. In this event shows learning is not seen as the acquisition of knowledge by individuals so much as a process of social participation. The nature of the situation impacts significantly on the process. As can be seen from my above experiences from my past teachers, these approaches involve contrasting ideas as to the purpose and process of learning and education and the role of the educators. It is also important to recognize that the theories may apply to different sectors of the learning acquisition process. 3.
HOW IMPORTANT IS A TEACHER STUDENT REALTIONSHIP IN THE CLASSROOM OR CLINICAL SETTING? In the classroom environment and clinical setting the interpersonal relationship between clinical instructor and students is an important element contributing to the learning process of students. Clinical instructors who foster positive relationships with their students create a clinical environments more conducive to learning and meet nursing students’ developmental, emotional and academic needs. A positive relationship between the student and the educator is difficult to establish, but can be found for both individuals at either end. The ways for a positive relationship can vary according to different learning experience.
A clinical instructor and nursing student who have the qualities of good communications, respect in a classroom, and show interest in teaching from the point of view of the instructor and learning from the student will establish a positive relationship in the classroom and clinical setting. In relation to the article entitled “The Relationship Between Clinical Instructor Characteristics and Student Perceptions of Clinical Instructor Effectiveness? nursing students does not see the association of the clinical instructors professional qualifications as being indicator of becoming a more effective teacher and as an educator who can provide a more satisfying clinical experience.
According to the study professional development of their clinical instructor is not a means of improving their classroom learning environment. The challenge of clinical teaching is to transform novice nursing students to practicing nurses. The teaching-learning relationship is complex and its effectiveness depends upon the teaching and learning styles of the instructor and student. Clinical instructors with professional behaviors will facilitate clinical learning. Clinical teaching excellence could not only be achieved by acquiring professional qualifications but also by having positive interpersonal relationships with students that shows confidence, respect, support and accessibility, with effective communicative and collaborative skills. | | | | | | | |