The BEED students would also like to gather more information about Mother Tongue based Education system. Thus, the respondents appreciated the utilization of Mother Tongue Based language in teaching Mathematics and Science as reflected on the result of the survey-questionnaire. Therefore, their perception towards mother tongue based language as the medium of instruction from kinder to grade 3 addresses the issue of child-centeredness as the main focus of instructional delivery in the teaching-learning process.
Moreover, the researcher found out that a number of BEED students requests for more seminars and educational gatherings for the improvement of their skill in teaching the subject using the Mother Tongue Language. Thus, the researcher recommends to the BEED Department or to the College of Education to make a four-day a week school plan and allot one day to conduct seminars for the said topic. They may use the style of the other universities like Philippine Normal University who is having a 4-day a week (M-Th; T-F) plan wherein Wednesday is being used either as a research day or seminar day for the faculties and students.
I. Introduction In lieu with the implementation of the Enhanced Basic Education (K+12 Program), the Department of Education also adapted the Mother Tongue Language Based Instruction from Kindergarten up to Grade III. The program defines the utilization of the native language or dialect, of a certain province, as the medium of instruction, especially on the subjects which is originally taught in English, enabling better understanding of the learners. The benefit of this adaptation is the simplicity and legibility of the delivery of every lesson because it is delivered in a language that the learners already knew.
Thus, there would be a positive output and feedback on the level of mastery of the learners. However, the deterioration of the learners’ ability to develop or enhance the language skill is very visible. The possibility of the use of other language (i. e. Filipino, English) is that it decreases due to the toleration of the use of the mother tongue and continuous exposure to a routinely environment. The less the learners are exposed to exercises, practice and utilization of the other language, the harder they are to be taught in the succeeding years.
Thus, a learner may exhibit difficulties in terms of comprehension, interpretation and pronunciation, which are essential to the development of the linguistic, social and psychological distinction as part of the holistic development of the learners. So as to keep abreast with the development of this program, this study aims to define the perception of the Bachelor of Elementary Education students of the College of Education in Taguig City University, towards this program. This study also seeks to identify suggested intervention towards the program.
II. Main Body RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Foreign When children come to school, they can talk in their MT about concrete everyday things in a face-to-face situation in their own environment where the context is clear: they can see and touch the things they are talking about and they get immediate feedback if they do not understand (“I didn’t mean the apples, I asked you to bring bananas”). They speak fluently, with a native accent, and they know the basic grammar and many concrete words.
They can explain all the basic needs in the MT: they have basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS). This may be enough for the first grades in school where teachers are still talking about things that the child knows. But later in school children need abstract intellectually and linguistically much more demanding concepts; they need to be able to understand and talk about things far away (e. g. in geography, history) or things that cannot be seen (e. g. mathematical and scientific concepts, honesty, constitution, fairness, democracy).
They need to be able to solve problems using just language and abstract reasoning, without being able to do concrete things (“if I first do A, then either D or E happens; if I then choose K, X may happen but Y may also happen; therefore it is best to do B or C first”). The cognitive-academic language proficiency (CALP) that is needed to manage from grade 3 on in school, in higher grades, upper secondary school and later in life, develops slowly. Children need to develop these abstract concepts on the basis of what they already know in their mother tongue.
If the development of the mother tongue CALP (which mainly happens through formal education) is cut off when the child starts school, s/he may never have an opportunity to develop higher abstract thinking in any language. If teaching is in a language that the Indigenous/Tribal/Minority (ITM) child does not know (e. g. Nepali), the child sits in the classroom the first 2-3 years without understanding much of the teaching. S/he may repeat mechanically what the teacher says, without understanding, without developing her capacity to think with the help of language, and without learning almost anything of the subjects that she is taught.
This is why many ITM children leave school early, not having learned much Nepali, not having learned properly how to read and write, not having developed their mother tongue, and almost without any school knowledge (August 2012) The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) recently convened a meeting of its Community of Practice for Early Grade Reading. SIL is one of the development partners participating in this effort to improve education for children in developing countries.
Among those who shared research and led discussion at the meeting was Dr. Steve Walter, one of SIL’s senior literacy and education consultants and Associate Professor of Language Development at the Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics. Walter presented the results of a study evaluating the effectiveness of mother-tongue-first multilingual education in the Central African nation of Cameroon. In the area where the research was carried out, Kom is the primary language spoken, but English is the language of instruction in local schools.
In 2007, SIL introduced an experimental program in which twelve schools were designated to provide classroom instruction in Kom (the students’ first language) through Grade 3. * Research gathered during the past five years of the program indicates that students in the Kom mother-tongue program scored better in almost every measure of student progress. During this time, students also study English as one of their school subjects (oral English in Grades 1 and 2, with students learning to read and write English in Grade 3).
From Grade 4 onward, English is the medium of instruction in all schools. Local Recent initiatives on mother tongues revolve around Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education or MTB-MLE. It was institutionalized on July 14, 2009 through Order No. 74 of the Department of Education (DepEd), therefore it is believed to have supplanted the country’s bilingual education policy (English and Filipino as media of instruction) which has been in place for close to three decades now.
The difference between MTB-MLE and bilingual policy can be understood essentially in terms of which languages should be the media of instruction. Philippine bilingual education requires English and Filipino, the national language, as media of instruction depending on which subjects are being taught (see Gonzalez; Luzares). MTB-MLE, on the other hand, pushes for the mother tongues of students as media of instruction in all subjects. Currently, however, the debates seem to be limited to MLE and bilingual policy issues in the primary grades.
It must be highlighted, however, that the MTB-MLE framework is really not new (see UNESCO The Use of Vernacular Language). As will be discussed in a section below, mother tongue instruction has been vigorously pursued in non formal/indigenous/minority schools in the country. The mother tongues in these schools have not only served as tools for effective learning, but also as channels for the expression and affirmation of local cultures and identities.
These uses of the mother tongues have rarely been questioned because of possibly at least two reasons. The first is that the MLE framework in these places has usually been a part of a larger framework of social and community development where the mother tongues are the “natural”: choice; the second is that it has been used “outside” the mainstream education system where the bilingual education policy was put in place (Canieso-Doronila “The Emergence of Schools”; Tupas “Kalayagan”; Dekker and Young).
During a language conference, Department of Education (DepEd) Sec Br Armin Luistro FSC talked about Mother Tongue-Based Multi-lingual Education (MTB-MLE) – a feature of the Enhanced Basic Education Program which mandates the use of the language that pupils are familiar with (their first language) as medium of instruction to make it easier for young students to grasp basic concepts. Luistro wants to emphasize that the teachers need to adjust to the students’ needs and use the language they are familiar with to teach the necessary concepts. “We want our schools to be learner-centered, meaning we take their needs into account when we teach.
As much as possible we try to adjust to facilitate learning. ” The mother tongue as a subject focuses on the development of reading and speaking from Grades 1 to 3. As a medium of instruction the mother tongue is used in all learning areas from Kinder to Grade 3 except in the teaching of Filipino and English subjects. Filipino is introduced in the first semester of Grade 1 for oral fluency (speaking). For reading and writing purposes, it will be taught beginning in the second semester of Grade 1. The four other macro skills which are listening, speaking, reading and writing in Filipino will continuously be developed from Grades 2 to 6.
At present the DepEd has teaching materials in Bahasa-Sug, Bicolano, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray-waray and is developing materials in Ybanag, Ivatan, Sambal, Aklanon, Kinaray-a , Yakan and Surigaonon. MAJOR AND MINOR CONSTRAINTS Major Constraints The linguistic competency of the Elementary teachers in using Mother Tongue Language as the medium of instruction, especially in the subjects of Mathematics and Science, is not easy to improve. The translation of numerous terminologies from its original language is another main constraint.
The quality of the English proficiency in the prior level is given less attention. Minor Constraints In the cultural aspect, the implementation of Mother Tongue Language is in contrary to the belief that Philippines must not be divided in terms of dialect. In terms of national competitions, the dialect isolates the contestants coming from the places with other dialect than Tagalog. In social aspect, it weakens the sociability of a young individual that transfers from their locality to another locality with different dialect
Trends and Issues about Mother Tongue-Based Language in the Philippines The lessons and findings of various local initiatives and international studies in basic education have validated the superiority of the use of the learners’ mother tongue or first language in improving learning outcomes and promoting Education for All (AFA). DepEd Order No. 74, s. 2009 further explained that the preponderance of local and international research consistent with the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) recommendations affirms the benefits and relevance of MLE.
Notable empirical studies like the Lingua Project and Lubuagan First Language Component show that: First, learners learn to read more quickly when in their first language Second, pupils who have learned to read and write in their first language, learn to speak, read and write in a second language and third language more quickly than those who are taught in the second or third language; Third, in terms of cognitive development and its effect in other academic areas, pupils taught to write in their first language acquire such competencies more quickly.
Relatedly, the study of DepEd Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) entitled; “Double Exposure in Mathematics: A Glimpse of Mother- Tongue First” has provided the local validation of the fundamental observation that top performing countries in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies(TIMSS), are those that teach and test students in Science and Math in their own language. Analysis Table A Question No. 1 Yes No Total No. of Respondents Do you think teaching Mathematics in Grade II using mother-tongue language can elevate the competitiveness of every student?
66 34 100 Table A shows that there are 66% of the total number of respondents says that students’ competitiveness can be evaluated by using mother-tongue language in teaching Mathematics in Grade II while the other 34% disagree to it. Table B Question No. 2 Yes No Total No. of Respondents In Mathematics 2 and 3, do you think usage of Mother-tongue based terminologies can result to a better knowledge acquisition, rather than using the English terminologies (e. g. plus, minus, times, divided by, one-fourth, one-half, etc. )?
48 52 100 Table B shows that 52% of the respondents say that using mother-tongue based terminologies cannot result to a better knowledge acquisition rather than using the English terminologies (e. g. Plus, Minus, Divided by, One-fourth, One-half) in teaching Mathematics II and III while the remaining 48% say it can result to a better knowledge acquisition. Table C Question No. 3 Yes No Total No. of Respondents Do you think teaching Science in Grade 3 using mother tongue can elevate the competitiveness of every student? 74
26 100 Table C shows that 74% of the respondents say that using mother-tongue language can elevate the competitiveness of students in teaching Science in Grade II and III while 26% of the respondents say it cannot elevate the competitiveness of students. Table D Question No. 4 Yes No Total No. of Respondents In Science 3, do you think usage of Mother-tongue based terminologies can result to a better knowledge acquisition, rather than using the English terminologies (e. g. nature, body, face, animals, and scalp)? 63 37 100
Table D shows that 63% of the respondents say that using mother-tongue based terminologies can result to a better knowledge acquisition, rather than using the English terminologies while the other 37% say that it cannot result to a better knowledge acquisition of the students. III. Challenges The BEED students find demo teaching of a certain topic in Science and Mathematics that has subject students of Grade 1 to 3 difficult, especially in the discussion proper due to the constraints of terminology translation and mother tongue based fluency.
Suggested Intervention (Respondent-Based) According to a respondent of the survey conducted by the researcher, “The College of Education of Taguig City University must conduct series of seminars with a theme of specializing Mother Tongue-Based Language and Terminology translation, before exposing the students in off-campus activities. ” IV. Concluding Remarks A. Recommendations The researcher found out that a number of BEED students requests for more seminars and educational gatherings for the improvement of their skill in teaching the subject using the Mother Tongue Language.
Thus, the researcher recommends to the BEED Department or to the College of Education to make a four-day a week school plan and allot one day to conduct seminars for the said topic. They may use the style of the other universities like Philippine Normal University who is having a 4-day a week (M-Th; T-F) plan wherein Wednesday is being used either as a research day or seminar day for the faculties and students. B. Conclusion
The study shows that BEED students prefer Mother tongue based education system in Math and Science. But they doubt their skills in terminology translation in order to deliver a spontaneous discussion. The BEED students would also like to gather more information about Mother Tongue based Education system. Thus, the respondents appreciated the utilization of Mother Tongue Based language in teaching Mathematics and Science as reflected on the result of the survey-questionnaire.
Therefore, their perception towards mother tongue based language as the medium of instruction from kinder to grade 3 addresses the issue of child-centeredness as the main focus of instructional delivery in the teaching-learning process. C. Implications for Improvement Proper dissemination of information and required attributes in the adaptation of Mother Tongue Based Education to the teachers and BEED students, which includes linguistic proficiency training (i. e.
English to Filipino, Visaya, Bikol and to other local dialects of the Philippines) for proper acquisition of the acceptable translation of Mathematical and Scientific Jargons. It is best recommended that future researchers must assess the effectiveness of the utilization of the mother tongue based language in teaching the specific subjects. This study covering all the dialects nationwide might identify how the MTB-MLE play a major role to produce a competent learner.