According to (Ducker, 1999) the private sector initially became the test case for telecommuting arrangements, and the federal government followed suit. Also the internet in particular have generated instant means of communication for the general and public companies, for example in most companies emails are sent effectively from top management to all ground level employees. This therefore, has become the most efficient way of fostering communication in an organization, hence its role. Another role of information technology (IT) is that it enhances productivity.
According to (Carnall, 2007) Information Technology and attendant technologies and tools can be used to automate key business operations, functions and activities of a business. For instance, traditionally miners used physical surveillance of the ground, thus, using the physical appearance, the type of trees around the places, and also the type of soil and stone surrounding the area to detect the presence of the minerals, but due to technology there computerized machines such as the gold detector which provides information about the presence of the mineral in its quantities. This enhances the production of minerals.
Market-available software, computing applications, networking just to mention a few can help professionals, workers and staff in a business to streamline work processes and execute tasks and functions faster in order to achieve organizational defined goals and targets. In addition to that, fostering greater collaboration can be seen as a role of information technology (IT) in changing workplace dynamics. According to (Miller, 2009) internet communication and telecommunication technology and information technology software systems can enable worker to work, interact and share information across locations and geographical boundaries.
With the help of Information Technology, businesses with multi-location offices and manufacturing facilities in different geographical zones can help staff members and employees to collaborate software and workgroup support systems can foster greater collaboration and encourage proactive human interactions for instance, OK (Masvingo) can chat on the Internet with OK Supermarket (Harare) looking for advices on how to lure customers and if changes need to be done thereby creating a relationship. This enhances instant change in an organization and thus, the roles of Information Technology impacts change positively.
Furthermore, information technology influences competitive measures. According to Dixon(1993) these measures are used as competitive tools for example in advertising products such as cars, some companies use the internet to market their product and this helps the organization gain a competitive advantage in the sense that any person can see the product being advertised easily wherever he or she might be living. In addition, to that even a very small business can hook up to an online retail site and sell its wares to a customer on other side of the world, businesses also have technology to thank for allowing more consumers find them.
For instance, a customer uses a smart-phone application to locate a service or store what he wants to use, leading him to the business. Also, information technology makes task management easy and saves money. According to (www. wbdg. org) vastly increased access to information made work easier. Most professional workers in companies often engage in multitasking for example an administrative assistant may have to update contact files and answer email queries within the same hour. Modern computers are equipped with the processing power to handle multiple open applications.
Information Technology according to (Howard, 1995) has brought with it many cost-saving options. As described by the Business computer Blog, a business management can use e-mail to send thousands of consumers a newsletter, as opposed to printing each newsletter on paper, which would cost a huge amount more. However, as much as information technology helps business out, making many things possible which otherwise would not be, it can be a curse too. Information technology (IT) decreases employment at a workplace.
According to (Zuboff and Mamin, 2002) by introducing the use of computers, social networking and emails reduces the number of human resources, for example, looking at a company such as OK, traditionally a supervisor could have a task of taking the stock of what is needed and putting orders to the manufacture but with the coming of computers managers do not see the need to have such an employee for he or she could do that easily on the computer sending catalogues of what is needed the manufacturer.
Also, information technology could bring conflict among the employees. Womack, Jones and Roos (1990) opines that, the young generation; those born after technology would not be in good books with the older generation who could have had much experience and years at the workplace. The young people would come in advising that change should be implemented to suit the computerized world whilst the older employees would be disagreeing, resisting to any change.
This tension is not good for the organization and the working condition for such an environment will not be that friendly and comfortable for the newly recruited workforce. Information technology has made reduction in face to face interaction. The internet has made it possible for people to keep in touch with people from anywhere in the world, one can communicate using text and cell phones, this has led to some complaints that such technology has led to a decrease in face to face interactions. Horward, 1995) propounds that, communication with someone face-to-face allows one to watch their nonverbal cues, such as a smile or frown and this is another layer of communication. Technology does not allow parties to catch these sorts of nonverbal cues. In Womack et al (1995), Dr. Pam Hayes an Alaskan psychologist is quoted as saying, “I think there is the potential for greater richness in face-to-face interaction because you lose the body cues and the facial expressions when you are doing work on the internet. The risk of losing information can be a down although there are good in strong information, this information could be lost in event of some physical damages, fires or viruses for example when BATA in Gweru burnt all the information stored in the computers of the goods bought, in stock and in need to be bought were all lost in the fire hence losing valuable information of the company. If this happens, it means that the organization will have to start afresh and retain everything lost and the level at which organization was changing would be disrupted.
In conclusion, information technology has come to be a household phrase for its amicable roles in the working environment and making everything much easier on both the customers or clients and their providers though it has some loop holes here there. Their merit holds more water than the demerits hence being recognized around the globalized world especially in the business industry. REFERENCE Carnall, C (2007). Managing Change in Organizations: England: Prentice-Hall Dixon, N (1993). Organizational Learning: Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada Report 111-93 Ducker, P. F (1999).
Management Challenges for the 21st Century. New York: Harper business. Horward, A (1995): The Changing Nature of Work: San Francisco: Joss-Bass Miller, K (2009). Organizational Communication: New York; Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Womack, J . P, Jones, D. T and Ross, D (1990) The Machine that changed the World: Old Tappan: Macmillan www. eHow. com (Accessed on 13/05/13) www. techterms. com/definition/it. (Cited on 17/05/13) www. wbdg. org/resources/chgorgwork. php (Cited on 17/05/13) Zuboff, S and Mamin, J (2002) The support Economy: New York: Penguin Group Viking Press