There are over 3000 different species of mosquitoes in the world. In the United States, there are 150 different species of mosquitoes (Crans, 2004). Female and male mosquitoes have an average lifespan of two weeks and feed on plants. It is the female mosquito that bites and feeds off humans, birds, and other animals blood to help fertilize their eggs. Because of this, female mosquitoes can spread diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (CDC, 2010).
According to the American Mosquito Control Association (2010) there are “at least 43 species of mosquitoes have been found infected with the West Nile virus in the United States. ” The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website (2010) stated that as of October 26, 2010, there were 832 cases of WNV and 34 fatalities in the United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. While there have been no incidents of WNV in Genericville within the last year, projections for WNV in Genericville are estimated to be about 50 cases with two fatalities.
The reasons for these projections are due to recent testing of possibly infected birds and higher than average rainfall which expanded the current mosquito breeding grounds. Presently, the wetlands at the banks of the river are a breeding ground for mosquitoes that may infect citizens and potential tourist to our area with West Nile Virus (WNV). By using Malathion as part of the mosquito control program, Genericville can eliminate the risk of our citizens and tourist from contracting the West Nile Virus (WNV) and other mosquito spread illnesses.
Malathion is an insecticide that has been used in public health pest control programs since 1956. Since Malathion is classified as an adulticide, it kills insects that are at the adult stage. In the proposed pesticide application program for Genericville, Malathion will be applied by ground application and aerial spraying in small doses that minimize risk to the humans and the environment. As I stated before I did extensive research on the pesticide Malathion and did a risk assessment of its pros and cons.
According to Wiley & Sons (2006), the steps of a risk assessment are as follows: Step 1:Hazard Identification Step 2:Dose-Response Step 3:Exposure Step 4:Risk Characterization Step 1:Hazard Identification To determine the results of the risk assessment, I followed the questions posed by Wiley & Sons (2006). In identifying the risk of Malathion, I needed to answer the following question: does exposure to Malathion causes increased likelihood of adverse health effects such as cancer or birth defects?
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (2010), Malathion is classified as having “suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity” but only in extremely high doses. Other adverse health effects such as dizziness, confusion, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, convulsions, and death only occur when individuals are exposed to or ingest high doses of Malathion Step 2:Dose-Response What is the relationship between amount of exposure and seriousness of adverse health effects? To answer this question, I again consulted the EPA website. If Malathion is applied according to the Environmental Protection