The concentration of these in and near the urban areas causes severe pollution to the surroundings. The largest sources of human-created air pollution are energy generation, transportation, and industries that use a great deal of energy sources. Depending on their source and interactions with other components of the air, they can have different chemical compositions and health impacts. Since these pollutants are generally concentrated in and around urban areas, the outdoor urban pollution levels are far higher than in the rural areas.
Indoor air pollution can be particularly hazardous to health as it is released in close proximity to people. It is stated that a pollutant released indoors is many times more likely to reach the lung than that released outdoors. It can lead to many health problems some sign of air pollutant exposure include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Symptoms of some diseases, including asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and humidifier fever, may also show up soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants. From “cpsc” we learn that there are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home.
These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies; central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution. If too little outdoor air enters a home, pollutants can accumulate to levels that can pose health and comfort problems.
Too much time indoors with little outdoor air is health problems. We see in urban areas people spend most of their time indoors with close doors, close windows. Outdoor air enters and leaves a house by: infiltration, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. In a process known as infiltration, outdoor air flows into the house through openings, joints, and cracks in walls, floors, and ceilings, and around windows and doors. In natural ventilation, air moves through opened windows and doors. The rate at which outdoor air replaces indoor air is described as the air exchange rate.
When there is little infiltration, natural ventilation, or mechanical ventilation, the air exchange rate is low and pollutant levels can increase. “In addition to environmental tobacco smoke, other sources of combustion products are unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, woodstoves, fireplaces, and gas stoves. The major pollutants released are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles. Unvented kerosene heaters may also generate acid aerosols. Combustion gases and particles also come from chimneys and flues that are improperly installed or maintained and cracked furnace heat exchangers.
Pollutants from fireplaces and woodstoves with no dedicated outdoor air supply can be “back-drafted” from the chimney into the living space particularly in weatherized homes”. (cpsc). According to “Hulin, Caillaud and Annesi” Health effects of indoor pollution have been investigated overall in urban areas. To compare the potential effect of home air pollutants on asthma in urban and rural houses; during 1 week, nitrogen dioxide, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) were assessed at home.
Urban dwellings were found to be more polluted than rural ones, with concentrations up to two times higher. In the urban population, the association with toluene was significant in children studied during winter, and with toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene when cases were restricted to current asthmatics. To conclude we can say indoor pollution can be found anywhere and that they are hazardous to the health. It is due to many things that we use, brought, or found in our homes.
Urban areas have a lot of pollutant because of big industries, over population, also the fact that people in cities use to many accommodations to make their life easy, free and fun. Like my grandma would say staying indoor all day is prison in many ways: your mind, your health, your freedom. Base on the above facts we can say that indoor pollution is a greater problem than in urban areas. It can be prevented, it can be reduce we just have to take the steps to that not wait for people to do for us. Safety starts at home.