Shampoo Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils and sebum, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants, build up of hair product and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable. There are dozens of different brands to choose from when choosing a shampoo, and even more types within those brands. The same goes for conditioners. Conditioners are meant to add shine, protect hair from drying out and allow for easier combing.
Popular Brands of Shampoo Pantene Pro-V Aussie Elvive Herbal Essences TRESemme Dove Head and Shoulders Garnier Fructis Types of Shampoo There are many shampoo types when considering specific hair types, these each have different active ingredients. Curly/wavy – Example – Curly Treatment shampoo by curly hair solutions This shampoo is a concentrate of panthenol and magnesium that strengthens the hair’s elasticity (the ability for the hair to stretch without breaking). Silk amino acids were added to soften and repair even the roughest hair cuticle.
Treatment Shampoo will deposit generous amounts of ingredients that are essential in rebuilding chemically damaged hair. Its effects are lasting and with continuous use will ensure healthy strong and fuller hair. Treatment Shampoo will dramatically prolong the results of colouring, perming and relaxing hair. Coloured – Example – Davines Alchemic Shampoo for Coloured hair Main Active Ingredients: Mild surfactants: Gently and carefully cleanse both hair and hair colour. Hydrolyzed milk protein: For an intense conditioning and protective action.
Provitamin B5: For a deep moisturising effect Olive oil peg-7 esters: Derived from olive oil, restores the natural hydro-lipid balance, leaving hair that is healthy and protected. pH 5. 3 Frizz prone/ rebellious – Example – Davines Love Smoothing Shampoo This shampoo is specially formulated to nourish, smooth and soften harsh, frizzy hair. It delicately cleanses hair with a special blend of natural active ingredients containing intensive moisturizing and smoothing properties that respect the hair’s internal structure making it more manageable and easier to comb.
It is infused with Indian Fig Extract to soften and smooth, and Olive Oil Peg 7 Ester to recover the moisture-lipid level which is essential for dry, frizzy strands. This essential moisture is vital for reducing the hair’s aging process that results from dehydration. Added Rice Proteins keep hair protected from environmental elements while eliminating static. Fine/flat – Example – PhytoVolume Shampoo Phytovolume is a volumizer shampoo for fine, limp, lifeless hair. Crustacean shell extract increase the moisture level in the hair shaft to make it swell for a fuller appearance.
So tetrasodium EDTA is used to sequester the calcium and magnesium from the detergent, while keeping them soluble, so they rinse away without scum. Cocamide DEA (or MEA or TEA) is used as a foaming agent, to make the lather. The other surfactants will generate a certain amount of suds, but this foaming agent is added to get the amount just right. Besides its foam stabilizing effects, it is also a viscosity booster (it’s thick). Another foam stabilizing detergent is PEG-5 cocamide, which is a foam stabilizer, surfactant, and emulsifier. The detergent cocamidopropyl betaine is added for several of its special properties. It is milder on the skin than the benzine sulfonates, so adding it to the mix reduces the amount of the harsher detergents needed.
It is thicker than the other ingredients, so it can be added to make the mix have the right viscosity. It has anti-static properties, so the hair doesn’t generate an electric charge and jump to the plastic combs and brushes used when drying the hair. It is a humectant, attracting moisture from the air, thus keeping hair from drying out. Lastly, it has antibiotic properties that can prevent spoiling of the shampoo. The surfactant ammonium xylenesulfonate is a hydrotrope, a compound that makes it easier for water to dissolve other molecules. It is added as a thickener, and to help keep some of the odd ingredients added for marketing effect in solution, including perfumes.
Glycerol stearate is another emulsifier used for this purpose. Special effects The wax glycol distearate is added to make shampoos opaque and pearlescent. It has tiny flakes that mix well with surfactants, and stay in solution. They also add shear-thinning qualities, making liquid hand soaps pump out of the bottle easier. Sodium chloride (table salt) is used to thicken the mixture if the main surfactants are sodium lauryl sulfates. If the surfactants are ammonium based, then ammonium chloride is used. Salt can make the shampoo harsh and sting the eyes, so more expensive thickeners are used to keep the salt levels low. Modified cellulose based thickeners are ften used, along with the surfactant based thickeners already mentioned.
Glycerine is added as a humectant (draws moisture from the air), as is propylene glycol, which is also a preservative. There are many additives put in shampoos and conditioners that appear to be there mainly for marketing purposes. Honey, various herb extracts, and similar items might add to the fragrance, but are unlikely to have any effect in the concentrations used. Amino acids can act as conditioners, but the source of the amino acid is not important. Silk amino acids are no different from soy amino acids, except in the proportions of which particular amino acids are contained. Preservatives
Two widely used preservatives, DMDM hydantoin and imidazolidinyl urea are found in many shampoos, to prevent fungal and bacterial spoilage. They release formaldehyde to kill germs. Another broad-spectrum biocide is isothiazolinone and the related methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone. Sodium benzoate is another preservative used in shampoos. It kills bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, and works well in acidic mixtures. Another bactericide used is 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol. Body Washes and bath Products Body washes also have different types but they are categorised according to skin type or condition. As well as normal skin types which can usually use any products and combination skin types that should shop around for different products.
There are anti-aging products, products for acne, dry skin, oily skin and sensitive skin such as a child‘s skin. Skin types and conditions Anti-Aging – Example – Dove Pro-age Beauty Bath Pro Age Beauty Body Wash is for dull tired skin with 1/4 moisturizing cream for vital luminous skin. It is made to give aging skin what it needs; including faster cell turnover and plenty of rich nourishment and protection. It combines functional ingredients like glycerin, emollients, natural soy oil and olive oil to optimize cell turnover while gently cleaning your skin. Other active ingredients of anti-aging products Vitamins and antioxidants are found in almost every antiaging formulation.
The best around is tretinoin, a vitamin A derivative that regenerates collagen lost over time and also stops further damage. US-based Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical’s RENOVA, which contains tretinoin, is available by prescription only. However, studies published in 2007 reported that over-the-counter retinol-based lotions and moisturizers, if properly formulated and applied, can result in the reduction of fine lines and wrinkles. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals before they can damage the skin. The leading ingredients are vitamins C and E. “Each of these ingredients works to protect the skin from sun damage, but they are even more effective when used in combination,” notes Burke.
Other antioxidants that have shown potential in laboratory studies include alpha-lipoic acid, the soy isoflavone genistein, selenium, the milk-thistle-derived flavonoid mixture known as silymarin and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). None of these has yet undergone rigorous studies to confirm effectiveness in products for human use. Examples of vitamin ingredients include Stay-C 50 (vitamin C sodium ascorbyl phosphate) and ALL-Q plus (vitamin E in combination with Coenzyme Q10) from DSM Nutritional Products. Acne – Example – Acne Skin Nourishing Milk Bath This product is a unique formula It has a milk protein base which is rich in nourishing vitamins, amino acids and minerals. This product contains natural plant collagen from Oat Extract and Japanese Camellia Oil to feed the skin whilst keeping it soft and supple.
It is also excellent for irritated, sensitive and excessively dry skin conditions. It has Benzoyl Peroxide as its active ingredient which has anti bacterial properties. Other active ingredients of acne products The ingredient of an acne product depends on its use. Some acne products have herbal ingredients known for curing acne and removing acne scasr. One of the active ingredients of an acne product in the market is the anti-bacterial agent known as Benzoyl Peroxide (which is the active ingredient of my acne bath product). It destroys the acne causing bacteria that causes drying and peeling effect thus preventing skin breakouts. Another one was a beta hydroxy acid from the bark of a willow tree called Salicylic Acid.
This agent has a bigger molecule size that helps the beta hydroxy acid stay on the surface of the skin, allowing it to penetrate effectively as it exfoliates inside the pore and prevents the pores from clogging. The ingredient sulfur and resorcinol are often found together as they are rarely used alone in acne products in the market. Removing dead skin cells that clogs pores and removes excess oil from skin is the primary use of this ingredient. The use of products with these may cause redness and peeling but can actually help break down whiteheads and blackheads. Products with alcohol and acetone found generally in astringents can be a primary solution in removing dirt and oils from skin that causes acne build up if ignored.