What did Schaeffer conclude about a society without moral absolutes? Do we see this in society? Schaeffer concludes that if a society has no moral absolutes then there is no final appeal to judge between individuals and groups whose moral judgments conflict. There will be no standards and only conflicting opinions. 3. On what authority do Christians base their belief in moral absolutes? How specific is this authority? Christians base their beliefs in moral absolutes through the Bible.
Of course, you cannot solve all moral decisions by referring to the Bible but there sufficient guidelines provided to give us a sense of what is morally right. These guidelines are the Decalogue also known as the Ten Commandments and tat is how specific the authority is. 4. Ethically speaking, what are Christians called to do? Christians are called to love the Lord with all their heart, all their soul, and with all their strength and with their entire mind and love your neighbor as yourself. 5. What did Dietrich Bonhoeffer mean by the question, “Where are the responsible people?
He meant Christians, who are willing to treat God’s moral order with the same respect they show His physical order; who love God with their whole body, soul, spirit, mind and strength; who treat others as they desire to be treated. Ethics 3. 2 6. Why do Muslims view Muhammad as morally exemplary even though the Hadith does not paint a flattering portrait of his life? Muslims are conditioned to look at the whole picture through the eyes of faith. Certain things that the Prophet did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality and may be considered sensual and cruel, but believers look at the whole thing differently.
To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions; the moral is whatever he did. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions, but his actions determines morality. 7. How do Christianity and Islam differ in relation to their beliefs about ethical absolutes? Christianity and Islam differ because Christianity is based on the Bible and Islam is based on the Qur’an and the Bible grounds morality in God’s essential character; the Qur’an teaches that God cannot be ultimately known. 8. In what two ways is the term jihad used?
First: the battle against temptation and sin for the sake of self-control and the development of virtue; Second: the battle against any and all who oppose Islam. 9. What motivates Muslims to behave ethically? They are motivated by several fronts like: to develop personal virtue and spirituality, to better the state of others, to strengthen relationships, and to anticipate the coming judgment. 10. Which motivation is strongest? The anticipation of final judgment. Ethics 3. 3 11. What is the ultimate ethical question for a Secular Humanist? What questions did Morris B.
Storer outline in his book Humanist Ethics? The ultimate ethical question for a Secular Humanist is Can morality be achieved without the foundation of absolute religious beliefs? Who makes the rules, God or men? Morris B. Storer outlined: Is personal advantage the measure of right and wrong or the advantage of all affected? Is there truth in ethics? Are right and wrong expressions of heart or head? Do people have free wills? Do you measure morality by results or by principles? Do people have duties as well as rights? 12. Why are there such diverse views and conflicts regarding humanistic ethics?
There are diverse views and conflicts because there is a lack of consensus about the foundation of ethics and that is problematic for the whole concept of Humanistic ethics. 13. Who proposed the “no-truth thesis” and what does it state? Kai Nelson and it states that no question of the truth or falsity of moral values can sensibly arise. 14. How do most humanists attempt to dodge the “no-truth thesis”? How does Corliss Lamont address this issue? They attempt to doge it by claiming that they use reason to determine right and wrong in the context of ethical relativism.
Lamont addresses the issue with optimism stating that as long as we pursue activities that are healthy, socially useful and in accordance with reason, pleasure and happiness will accompany us and the supreme good will the eventual result. 15. What did Arthur E. Gravatt, Joseph Fletcher, Herbert W. Schneider, and Paul Kurtz have to say about Ethics? Dr. Arthur E. Gravatt: Moral behavior may differ from situation to situation. Behavior might be moral for one person and not another or moral at one time and not another.
Joseph Fletcher: Rights and wrongs are determined by objective facts or circumstances, that is, by the situations in which moral agents have to decide for the most beneficial course open to choice. Herbert W. Schneider: Morality is “an experimental art” and is the “basic art of living well together. ” Moral right and wrong must therefore be conceived in terms of moral standards generated in a particular society. Paul Kurtz: Moral principles should be treated as hypotheses, tested by their practical worth and judged by what they cause to happen. Ethics 3. 4 16. How did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels view the issue of morality?
Marx and Engels denied that moral ideals, moral considerations, are central in human life and social evolution. Rather, it is biological and social evolution that determines their definition of morality. What is right and wrong is determined by what is best for evolution. 17. What is the Marxist-Leninist morality of the future? How will it be determined? Their morality of the future is when the proletariat finally destroys the bourgeoisie. The new classless society will determine the new morality, just as this evolution toward a classless society is dictating today’s morality. 18. What is the Marxist-Leninist view of “old morality?They view old morality as products of the bourgeoisie invented and used by the propertied class to oppress the propertyless proletariat. 19. What is the Marxist code of ethics according to the book Scientific Communism? “Devotion to the cause of the working class, collectivism, mutual aid, comradely solidarity, hatred toward the bourgeoisie and toward traitors to the common cause, internationalism, and stoicism in struggle are traits which not only define the content of proletarian ethics, but also characterize the moral image of the typical representatives of the working class.
20. What means have Marxists historically believed would bring about a society without class distinction? What have been the results of such an ethical system? They believe that revolution is the most efficient means for creating a society without class distinctions. This system is responsible for 83 million deaths between 1917 and 1964. But from a Marxist-Leninist point of view, it is worth the price if people die to abolish social classes and private property.