Also important in Bergson’s philosophy was the idea of elan vital, the life force, which “brings about the creative evolution of everything” His philosophy also placed a high value on intuition, though without rejecting the importance of the intellect. These various thinkers were united by a distrust of Victorian positivism and certainty. Modernism as a literary movement can be seen also, as a reaction to industrialization, urbanization and new technologies. Modernist literature attempts to take into account changing ideas about reality developed by Darwin, Mach, Freud, Einstein, Nietzsche, Bergson and others.
From this developed innovative literary techniques such as stream-of-consciousness, interior monologue, as well as the use of multiple points-of-view. Important literary precursors of Modernism were: Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821–81) (Crime and Punishment (1866), The Brothers Karamazov (1880)); Walt Whitman (1819–92) (Leaves of Grass) (1855–91); Charles Baudelaire (1821–67) (Les Fleurs du mal), Rimbaud(1854–91) (Illuminations, 1874); August Strindberg (1849–1912), especially his later plays, including, the trilogy To Damascus 1898–1901, A
Dream Play (1902), The Ghost Sonata (1907). At the beginning some modernists fostered a utopian spirit, stimulated by innovations in anthropology, psychology, philosophy, political theory, physics and psychoanalysis. The poets of the Imagist movement, founded by Ezra Pound in 1912 , as a new poetic style gave Modernism its early start in the 20th century, were characterized by a positive spirit, rejecting the sentiment and discursiveness typical of Romantic and Victorian periods. or poetry that favoured a precision of imagery, brevity and Free verse. This idealism, however, ended, with the outbreak of World War I, and writers created more cynical works that reflected a prevailing sense of disillusionment. Many modernist writers also shared a mistrust of institutions of power such as government and religion, and rejected the notion of absolute truths. Later modernist works, such as T. S.
Eliot’s The Waste Land (1922), were increasingly self-aware, introspective, and often explored the darker aspects of human nature The term modernism covers a number of related, and overlapping, artistic and literary movements, including Imagism, Symbolism,Futurism, Vorticism, Cubism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dada. Postmodernism in Literature Postmodernism is in general the era that follows Modernism.  It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy,economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism.
It is also confused with deconstructionand post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thinker. One of the most well-known postmodernist concerns is “deconstruction,” a concern for philosophy, literary criticism, and textual analysis developed by Jacques Derrida. The notion of a “deconstructive” approach implies an analysis that questions the already evident deconstruction of a text in terms of presuppositions, ideological underpinnings, hierarchical values, and frames of reference.
A deconstructive approach further depends on the techniques of close reading without reference to cultural, ideological, moral opinions or information derived from an authority over the text such as the author. At the same time Derrida famously writes: “Il n’y a pas de hors-texte (there is no such thing as outside-of-the-text). “ Derrida implies that the world follows the grammar of a text undergoing its own deconstruction.
Derrida’s method frequently involves recognizing and spelling out the different, yet similar interpretations of the meaning of a given text and the problematic implications of binary oppositions within the meaning of a text. Derrida’s philosophy influenced a postmodern movement called deconstructivism among architects, characterized by the intentional fragmentation, distortion, and dislocation of architectural elements in designing a building. Derrida discontinued his involvement with the movement after the publication of his collaborative project with architect Peter Eisenmann in Chora L Works: Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman.
Structuralism was a philosophical movement developed by French academics in the 1950s, partly in response to French Existentialism. It has been seen variously as an expression of Modernism, High modernism, or postmodernism[by whom? ]. “Post-structuralists” were thinkers who moved away from the strict interpretations and applications of structuralist ideas. Many American academics consider post-structuralism to be part of the broader, less well-defined postmodernist movement, even although many post-structuralists insisted it was not.
Thinkers who have been called structuralists include the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, and the semiotician Algirdas Greimas. The early writings of the psychoanalystJacques Lacan and the literary theorist Roland Barthes have also been called structuralist. Those who began as structuralists but became post-structuralists include Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze. Other post-structuralists includeJacques Derrida, Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Julia Kristeva, Helene Cixous, and Luce Irigaray.