Michelangelo was borne on March 6, 1475 in Caprice Italy, his full mane was Michelangelo di Lodonico Buonarroti Simoni; his father was serving briefly as a magistrate in the small town where he had recorded the birth of his second son of five which he had with his wife, Francesca Neri. They returned to Florence while Michelangelo was still an infant during his mother’s illness, which Michelangelo had to be placed with a family of stonecutters, (“Michelangelo,”2013).
When it came to schooling Michelangelo was less interested in watching the painters and nearby churches and also drawing what he saw according to (Varsari, Condivi and Varchi), or maybe it could have been one of if grammar school friend, Francesco Granacci, who has introduces Michelangelo to the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio; which has made his father realized that Michelangelo was not interesting in the family financial business, so he agree to apprentice his son at the age of thirteen, (“Michelangelo,”2013).
At the Florentine painters workshop Michelangelo was exposed to the technique of fresco, he only spend one year at the work spot when and opportunity arrived. With the recommendatation of Ghirlandaio, Michelangelo moved in to the palace of the Florentine ruler Lorenzo the Magnificent one of the power Medici family. During 1489 to1492 was one of the fertile years for Michelangelo during that time with the Medici family, (“Michelangelo,”2013). Michelangelo also study under the Beltordo di Giovanni the sculptor, who as exposed him to prominent poet’s scholars and learners of the Humanist. He obtains a special permission from the Catholic Church to study cadaver in anatomy and the exposure of corpses. Michelangelo consider his self as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and a poet and also as a Florentine one of the most famous artist in the Italian Renaissance time, (“Michelangelo. ”2013). Michelangelo thought of himself first as a sculptor with regards of the calling of his superior painting, because his sculptor shares something like the divine power to “make man”, (Kleiner 2010).
His self imposed and isolation, creative furies, proud independency, and his daring independency had led the Italian to speak about his dominating quality of his work in one word (terribilita), (Kleiner 2010, pg. 467). During his time he painted: The Last Judgment, The Creation of Adam and also The Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Before starting the painting Julius ll had suspended the work on his tomb, the pope had gave the bitter Michelangelo to paint the ceiling (fig. 17-1) of the Sistine Chapel during 1508.
He insisted that painting was not his profession, at that moment painting was consider secondary he was focus in sculpture at that time. He faces enormous difficulties in painting the Sistine ceiling. First he had to address the ceiling dimension, heights of the pavement, (Kleiner 2010). The first part of the Sistine Chapel that Michelangelo had completed had to be redone, due to the faulty preparation of the intonaco, but yet in less than four years it took Michelangelo to produce a monumental fresco to incorporate his patron agenda, the Church doctrine and also the artist interest.
Michelangelo succeed in putting together more than 300 figures in to an ultimate grand drama of a human race in to this portrait, (Kleiner 2010). The Sistine Chapel Ceiling entails the creation and record of Genesis which runs along the crowns of the vaults, from God’s Separation of the Light and Darkness, including the Darkness of Noah, so when the viewer enter the church they could walk and look up and review the history of the fall of umankind, (Kleiner 2010), and the other side appear the Hebrews prophets and pagans sibyls which foretold the coming of Christ, who appear seated in the large throne on both sides. Michelangelo places four Old Testament scenes with David, Judith, Haman, and Moses and the Brazen serpent, lesser figures also appears and the ancestor of Christ fill the triangular compartment below the window, with nudes youths who punctuates the corners of the panels, he uses shades of grays to imitate the sculpture and support the painting cornice of the entire central corridor, (Kleiner 2010).
The idea of the ceiling design was to bring back the chronology of Christianity but also keeping up with the Renaissance ideas of Christian history and the conflict between evil and good and also the energy of the youth and the wisdom of age, the concept of the ceiling was outstanding and the articulation of it with thousand of details was for a super human achievement (Kleiner 2010).
Michelangelo did not paint the original tradition of the Creation of Adam but instead he produces a humanistic interpretation of the momentous event, (Kleiner 2010). Here we see the confrontation between God and Adam, which Adam is still part of earth, the Lord wrap around on a cloud of drapery by his power. The Lord as ruler of the world indicates how easily the Renaissance joined the classical Christian traditions (Kleiner 2010).
Under the sheltering arm of God a female figure is show, many thing is Eve, but many know is the Virgin Mary (with the Christ Child at her knee), according to the author the second identification is correct them Michelangelo had incorporated his fresco essential tenets of Christian faith, which is the belief that Adam Original sin let to sacrifice of Christ for the redemption of humankind, (Kleiner 2010).
While God reaches out for the hand of Adam, the viewers could follow the motion with their eyes, from left to right, meanwhile Adam’s left harm is extended will lead the eyes back to the right, along the right of the Lord’s right arm, shoulders, and left arm to his left forefinger, who his pointed toward Christ Childs face, (Kleiner 2010). Therefore the fingertips of Adam and the Lord are off point, that’s why Michelangelo replace the architectural axes; which was found in Leonardo composition with curves and diagonals.
Michelangelo in the Last Judgment here he painted Christ as the stern judge of the world, a giant who raises his arm at the world suggesting that he will destroy all creation of the universe; while the choirs of heaven his surrounding him, the trumpeting angels and the ascending figures, on the left the death awake with the assume flesh; and on the right the demons and the gargoyles mask with the burning eyes revives the demons of Romanesque tympana (fig. 1-16) who tormented the damned, (Kleiner 2010).
More over the author describe Michelangelo in a terrifying vision which of the faith that awaits the sinners, that goes far beyond the gruesome images (fig. 16-41). One of the judges Saint Bartholomew who was skinned alive, which holds the flying knife and the skin, these figures are huge and violently twisted. In those days Christ wrath and Judgment Day, was also hold out of hope; a group of save souls where selected and the crowd around Christ and the others on the far right figures appears with a cross, more likely the good thief, (Kleiner 2010).
In another illustration the author describe with detail the intention of Michelangelo while he was painting The Last Judgment, here he discuss how the saint in a more vivid way was suffering; the details of (the eyes, the twist of the chest). The author assumed that this new work will bring the attention of the viewers and also the beauty of the work, more than the atrocity of the nails, ropes, and chains, (Barnes, B. 1995)
Leonardo was now as one of the greatest artist in history; he could claim the job title of architect, astronomer, botanist, sculptor, anatomist physiologist, geologist, and physicist, as well as military, mechanical, civil, and aeronautical engineer, (Wise, O’Leary, Patrick, 2001). Leonardo Da Vinci was born in the town of Vinci Italy near Florence in 1452. He received his training in the studio of Verecchio, daVinci move to Milan at the age of twenty-nine were he did work for Ludivico Sforza de Duke of Milan, until Milan fell to Louis XlV of France.
Da Vinci in a letter to the Duke letting him know his talent, he could carry out his talent in sculpture in marble, bronze, or clay, and he also let the duke know that he could also do it in painting as well. His interest in anatomy did not begin until later in his life, these Renaissance artists were among the first to begin to examining corpses; looking at this famous painters and wondering why the interest in cadavers, (Wise, O’Leary, Patrick, 2001).
Da Vinci drawing went beyond the musculoskeletal system to be able to understand the inner structure of the function of the human body, Michelangelo had dissected more than 30 cadaver for the only reason was that Pope Leo X had forbade him from performing human dissection. From dissecting cadaver Michelangelo when to study how the muscle work to produce motion, (Wise, O’Leary, Patrick, 2001).
Therefore according to the authors that da Vinci contribution to the study in the system where complicated by his depiction of the animal anatomy, which he assumed to be the same as a human. However Michelangelo contribution to the anatomy and the physiology of the system are very immense; hi was the first to equate the quantity of the urine the amount of the blood and the passing through of the kidney, (Wise, O’Leary, Patrick, 2001). Leonardo and his patronage move to the French royal family where he spends his reminded of his life between Milan, Florence, Venice and France.
Leonardo was one of the most prominent artist of the Renaissance who begging examining corpses, between his corpses and his painting, Leonardo created most of the wonderful painting during his time; which will be discuss as follow: The Mona Lisa, The Last Supper and also The Madonna of the Rock. The Mona Lisa is the world most famous portrait, according to Leonardo, Giorgio Vasari, Mona Lisa portrait was the wife of Francesco del Giocondo; her name was Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini, it was a contraction between ma domna, “my lady), (Kleiner 2010).
According to the Renaissance etiquette which dictates that women should never look in to a man’s eyes; this portrait is a convincing representation of and individual, (Kleiner 2010). Leonardo Mona Lisa according to the author (page 46, fig. 17-5) sitter’s are still the subjects of the scholarly debate and the portrait is also a convincing representation of an individual, unlikely earlier portrait this one does not serve only as an icon of status but as a respected and novel woman and a serious look that makes the viewers wonders, who is Mona Lisa and what she represent in this portrait, (Kleiner 2010).
The portrait of the Mona Lisa represents a woman sitting with her hands folded and not wearing jewel, while her mouth is forming a gently smile while she gaze directly to the viewers attention. The painter skills had a chiaroscuro and atmospheric perspective to his display, the painting is darker today but the colors less vivid; still reveal the artist fascination. The Mona Lisa was a prime example to Leonardo smoky sfumato, (Kleiner 2010)
The painting describe by Nicholas Ge’s that in 1862 that the Russian painter has undertook and repeating Leonardo’s social and theological post Romantic age. According to the author here in the painting of the Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, is describing the moment and the tension of the betrayal of Judas decision whether or not to leave the room, while the tension of a possible outcome of negative or positive; which depend on Judas decision, (Inessa, M. 2004). , while the act of the Eucharist took place.
The figure of Judas is show that he is ready to step out with his head bend down. The author discuss about his fundamental point of the nineteenth-century Russian artistic vision of the Last Supper which are inseparable from the Orthodox notion and the Eucharistic notion as well; in which the scene of the Last Supper is a paradoxically and not central. In the Russian mind the Last Supper became a central focus and not a theological or liturgical, phenomenon, because the Russian literature and holds a mirror to his agon, nd recording his points of views in the debates and also taking sides in it, (Inessa, M. 2004). During the second half of the nineteenth century, religious themes were flourished in European art, this has influence Schleiermacher, David Friedrich Strauss, and Renan’s La Vie de Jesus (1863) as well and as posed a serious challenge to these artists. Therefore these writers has urged every artist to imbue traditional religious subjects with naturalism and to impose religious as a meaning scenes as an everyday life, (Inessa, M. 2004).
The author describe the painting of the Last Supper of a moment and between the announcement of the betrayal of Judas deciding to leave or not to leave the room, while the tension is sustained and there is a possibility of a positive or negative outcome; this is all depend on the outcome of Judas as well as Jesus, all of these responses are all possible outcomes, (Inessa, M. 2004). While Christ is looking down but not serene he is tormented, if you watch Judas leave while John no longer laying on God chest but standing at his side. Where the lights flow behind the disciples and also fall over their heads in the middle of the room.
Ge achieves blackness without using a stroke of black, while his decision was not by purely technical consideration. The density and the intensity of the colors shadow of brown, taupe, auburn and mahogany which Ge employed in sculpting the others disciples, (Inessa, M. 2004). Leonardo after settling in Milan he painted the Madonna of the Rock, for the chapel of the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception in San Fresco Grande. In this painting Leonardo uses the gesture and the pyramidal composition of the Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, Christ the Child and angels; these figures share the same lights.
He uses oil painting which previously is used mostly by the Northern European, (Kleiner, 2010). Madonna of the Rock was built on Masaccio’s as an understanding and usage of chiaroscuro, which the play in the light and the dark, while modeling with the light and the shadow and the expression the emotional states, which for Leonardo the heart of the painting represent the Madonna of the Rock as a pyramidal grouping and notably in sharing the same environment, (Kleiner 2010).
The groundbreaking achievement which unified the presentation of the objects in an atmospheric setting is a manifestation of Leonardo scientific curiosity regarding the invisible substance which surrounds everything. Here in the Madonna of the Rock, Leonardo describe with detail the painting; from the color of the background to the depth of each figures and the position, (Kleiner 2010). Leonardo painting, The Madonna of the Rock represents the Virgin which completes the series interlocking the gesture of her left hand reaching forward the Christ Child and her right hand resting on John’s shoulder.
While the melting mood and tenderness, caressing the light enhancing the surface of the entire mood, (Kleiner, 2010). The similarities between Michelangelo, and da Vinci is the time period which both artist lived and worked. Da Vinci was twenty-three older than Michelangelo which both where active at the same time until the death of da Vinci in the year of 1959; while Michelangelo lived for another 45 years. As artists they both work in the same regions with limited supply, they both will compete for commissions, (Kroll, J. )
Therefore by the time Michelangelo became an artist da Vinci has already establish his work, and while Michelangelo work was establish da Vinci had already retired to France. During the renaissance both artist Michelangelo and da Vinci where always commissioned by the Church to create interior art base regarding Biblical stories. Da Vinci most famous work was the one called “The Last Supper”, and with Michelangelo as well his most famous painting was the “Sistine Chapel” roof which display several books from Genesis, and his second painting title “The Last Judgment”, (Kroll, J. Even thought Michelangelo is known as a sculptor da Vinci is known for his sketches and his inventions, both artists are more notable for their painting; Michelangelo and ad Vinci worked with bright and realistic compositions of characteristics of an artist during the period of the Renaissance. While ad Vince pay more attention to the fabric and the draping of his subjects while in heavy clothes; Michelangelo figures are often larger, (Kroll, J. )
Both painters had their differences in particular, Leonardo with his intellectual and analytical mind which he preferred painting rather than sculpting, Leonardo looked at sculpting as degrading and manual labor; while Michelangelo at the other hand regard himself as a sculptor . (Kleiner 2010). Michelangelo and da Vinci both been artist during the Renaissance had their dreams, both artist brought their painting in to a new perspective and creativity; with different aspect they both uses mannerism in their painting.