Locale: As Thailand is transitioning from a developing to a middle-income developed country, chronic diseases (particularly cardiovascular disease) have emerged as major health issues. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke and cross-sectional studies have indicated that the prevalence is increasing. Participants/Subjects: A total of 57? 558 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University students who participated in both the 2005 and 2009 questionnaire surveys and who were normotensive in 2005 were included in the analysis.
Data Gathering Instrument: A 20-page health risk questionnaire which focused on sociodemography, habitation, work, health services, injury, sedentary habits, physical activity, transport, underlying diseases, family history, personal behaviours, body mass index (BMI), and consumption of foods, vegetables and fruit. Data Analysis Used: All analyses were performed using SPSS software. The incidence of hypertension and its 95% CI were calculated for each value of each categorical variable in both male and female participants and the influence on incidence by each variable was evaluated by ?? test.
For statistical inference, all p values were two tailed and significance was set at 5%. Relative risks (RRs) in a large study of an uncommon disease (incidence less than 10%) can be accurately estimated as odds ratios (ORs). Accordingly, for each risk variable, the RR and 95% CI were estimated using logistic regression to calculate the bivariate OR for hypertension. Adjusted RRs (ARRs) were estimated by calculating multivariate logistic regression ORs. ARRs were controlled for confounding by age, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), BMI, underlying diseases and personal behaviours (cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking).
A variable was included in a multivariate model if bivariate analysis had indicated a statistically significant association with incidence of hypertension. Some variables were included because earlier analyses reported elsewhere had shown a significant or substantial association with hypertension. The overall 4-year incidence of hypertension was 3. 5%, with the rate in men being remarkably higher than that in women (5. 2% vs 2. 1%). In both sexes, hypertension was associated with age, higher BMI and comorbidities but not with income and education.
In men, hypertension was associated with physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and fast food intake. In women, hypertension was related to having a partner. In both men and women, hypertension was strongly associated with age, obesity and comorbidities while it had no association with socioeconomic factors. The cohort patterns of socioeconomy and hypertension reflect that the health risk transition in Thais is likely to be at the middle stage. Diet and lifestyle factors associate with incidence of hypertension in Thais and may be amenable targets for hypertension control programmes. Bibliography
(APA Format) Major Objectives/Research Questions Themes/Variables Method Major Findings Dogan, N. , Toprak, D. , Demir, S. , (2012). Hypertension pre- valence and risk factors among adult population in Afyonkarahisar region: a cross-sectional research. Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, 12(1), 47-52, DOI: 10. 5152/akd. 2012. 009. Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors among adult population in Afyonkarahisar region. Gender BMI, kg/m2 Education Level
Income Smoker Family history of Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus Coronary Heart Disease Parity (number of births) Method specified in the study: The study planned as a cross-sectional research. The present study was approved by the Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Medicine Clinical Research Ethics Committee and written, informed consent was obtained from all participants. A total of 2035 people, from 75 different screening regions (18 urban, 57 villages) of our city were detected according to the population records of the year 2000, which represent the population of the area appropriately.
A total of 7000 km of roadway was driven for the research by a team of 15 physicians, 1 nurse and a driver. The records of the regional health institutions were used in order to determine the subjects. Locale: The study was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. Participants/Subjects: In this study, people older than 18 years were grouped together, as were 19-29 years old, 30-39 years old, 40-49 years old, 50-59 years old, 60-69 years old, 70 and over. According to the 2000 census of the Turkish Statistical Institute, the total population of the city was 812. 416 (403.
105 women and 409. 311 men). Ratios of the district to the total population, sex and age factors were taken into account to determine the sample population. Our research is a part of a comprehensive study in which the individuals were selected regarding the age groups (0-18 years old, 19-40 years old, 41-64 years old, 65 and over) and gender. Data Gathering Instrument: Questionnaire The questionnaire included two main sections. The first section included questions about sociodemographic characteristics. The second section included questions about the risk factors related with hypertension. Blood pressure measurement
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured after the participant had been seated and rested for 5 minutes. Two measurements were taken at an interval of minimum one hour between readings, and the average of the 2 recordings was accepted as the subject’s blood pressure. Participants were advised to avoid cigarette smoking, alcohol, caffeinated beverages and exercise for at least 30 min before their blood pressure measurement. Definitions BMI was categorized in three groups as ? 24. 99 kg/m2, 25-29. 99 kg/m2 and ? 30 kg/m2. BMI value ? 30kg/m2 was accepted as obesity.
Blood pressure categories were defined according to the JNC-7 guidelines report: HT was defined as SBP ? 140 mmHg or DBP ? 90 mmHg, for both men and women (17). CHD patients were determined by a positive history of the disease. According to the American Diabetes Association report criteria people who had fasting glucose level ? 126 mg/dl were accepted as DM (18). Data Analysis Used: All statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS 13. 0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc. , Chicago, USA). The comparisons of prevalence between dichotomous categories were made using Chi-square test. Student’s t-test was used for comparison of continuous variables.
Continuous variables are expressed as mean±standard deviation. Epidemiological data were analyzed by using binary logistic regression models to evaluate possible risk factors associated with the presence of HT. In the logistic regression, HT (positive, negative) was a dependent variable and age groups, gender, level of education, household income, BMI, DM, family history HT, cigarette use and CHD were independent variables. Forward Wald stepwise elimination of all non-significant variables was applied to obtain a minimal model containing only significant variables. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. A p