He struggles to stand up as an individual even as the crowd opposes his views and actions. Although he remains idealistic throughout Inherit the Wind, he often needs Drummond’s encouragement to persevere with his cause. Cates doubts himself at times, especially when Rachel pleads him to admit his guilt and beg forgiveness. In several instances in the play, Cates displays the humanity of an open, forgiving mind, as do the other evolutionists and progressives.
Ironically, forgiveness comes more readily to Cates than to his staunchly Christian neighbors—foremost among them Reverend Brown, whose fire-and-brimstone sermons led Cates to abandon the church. Although Rachel unwittingly and unwillingly betrays Cates by testifying against him at Brady’s behest, he sympathizes with her pain as she becomes distraught during her time on the witness stand. In fact, Cates urges the court to dismiss Rachel from the stand, which denies her the chance to defend Cates when questioned by Drummond.
In the end, when Cates leaves town with Rachel, we see that his trial has opened Rachel’s mind as well. Matthew Harrison Brady – A national political figure and a three-time loser in presidential campaigns who arrives in Hillsboro to lead the prosecution in Cates’s trial. A Christian fundamentalist and Nebraska native, Brady defends the literal truth of the Bible against what he labels Cates’s big-city agnosticism. Drummond, however, exposes the obvious contradictions of this viewpoint, much to Brady’s embarrassment.
At the beginning of Inherit the Wind, Brady arrives pompously, confident that the trial is as good as won. Scornful of the threat that Drummond might present to him as the opposing attorney, Brady exhibits hubris, or excessive pride, in failing to consider the prospect of his own humiliation. Playing on his home turf in rural Christian Tennessee, Brady basks in the glow of his simple-minded supporters’ praise. When Drummond undermines Brady’s authority, Brady breaks down, for he lacks the inner strength to reconsider his own beliefs and adjust to an unexpected challenge.
We learn that Brady ran for president in three consecutive elections but never succeeded. This failure plagues him throughout his life and manifests itself during the trial. When Brady falls ill following his floundering responses to Drummond’s line of questioning, he deliriously spews forth the speech he had prepared for a possible presidential victory. Brady is a caricature of the real-life prosecutor William Jennings Bryan. Like Brady, Bryan lost three presidential elections and died shortly after the Scopes Monkey Trial.
In Inherit the Wind, as in the national media in 1925, Brady’s / Bryan’s death symbolized the humiliation he suffered in the trial and the end of an obsolete brand of politics. Bryan was Democrat, but in the decades after his death, his party took on a more progressive, liberal stance. Not that conservative elements disappeared from American politics—they now exist as tenets of the Republican party. Although his politics and values are rigidly fundamentalist, Brady remains a complex character. Although he subscribes to a rather traditional brand of Christianity, he embraces more of the Bible than the Hillsboro preacher Reverend Brown does.
When Brown harshly calls for eternal hellfire as punishment for Cates and all those who side with him—including even his own daughter—Brady interrupts Brown and reminds the crowd of the Christian doctrine of forgiveness. Brown’s version of Christianity, with its frequent casting out of sinners, is grounded in the harsher books of the Old Testament. Brady’s, on the other hand, recognizes the more compassionate elements of Jesus’ message and the possibilities that this compassion creates for mankind. Henry Drummond – A famous lawyer from Chicago whom the Baltimore Herald sends to defend Cates.
Drummond, a believer in human progress, argues for freedom of thought. The infamous criminal-defense attorney Henry Drummond arrives in Hillsboro vilified as an atheist but leaves, after losing the trial, as a hero. To the audience—and to many of the townspeople—Drummond makes a convincing case for the right of a human being to think. He accomplishes this feat by exposing the contradictions underlying his witnesses’ inherited religious beliefs. During the case, Drummond demonstrates that people know less than what they believe themselves to know.
His greatest triumph in the name of free thought is getting Howard Blair to admit that he has not made up his mind about evolutionary theory. When we hear this admission, Drummond’s point becomes clear: freedom of thought becomes the freedom to be wrong or to change our minds. The world, viewed in this light, is full of possibilities. Although Drummond typically exposes the shortcomings of his subjects’ beliefs in gentle fashion, his cross-examination of Matthew Harrison Brady causes humiliation and hysteria. Brady self-destructs when his convictions about the literal truth of the Bible wither under the light of Drummond’s skepticism.
Until that point, Drummond deploys his wry wit—his purple suspenders from Nebraska, his cracks about the unfairness of Brady’s title and the judge’s announcement of a Bible meeting but no evolutionist meeting—to no one’s harm, while ironically exposing the injustice that his defendant faces. While Drummond’s attack of Brady is not mean-spirited, it is devastating. At the same time, the power of Drummond’s attack stems not so much from Drummond’s wit as from the weight of Brady’s egotism, stubbornness, and arrogance as they collapse in his ranting testimony.
Unlike Brady, Drummond does not conceive of truth as a set of fixed rules that can be read from a book and imposed on society. His wonder about the world, which he shares and encourages in Cates, allows him to “look behind the paint,” to interpret events for more than their obvious meanings. Drummond’s thorough examination of his witnesses’ beliefs exposes complexities and contradictions in the same way that Cates’s microscopes reveal to his students complexities of life and matter not visible to the naked eye. E. K. Hornbeck – A cynical, wisecracking journalist and critic who speaks in colorful phrases.
Hornbeck travels to Hillsboro to cover the trial for the Baltimore Herald. He despises Brady’s religious fundamentalism and the townspeople’s simple-minded acceptance of Brady’s views. In his column, Hornbeck portrays Cates as a hero. Rev. Jeremiah Brown – The figure of religious authority in Hillsboro. Reverend Brown preaches a creed based on the fear of God and the punishment of sinners. Rachel Brown – The daughter of Reverend Brown. Twenty-two-year-old Rachel teaches the second grade at the school where Cates also taught. Rachel is close friend of Cates, and their relationship has a romantic element.
Rachel fears her father’s disapproval and becomes upset when Brady calls on her to testify about her personal conversations with Cates. IN DEPTH: Rachel’s romance with Cates runs parallel to her own personal development and highlights the primary conflict in the play—fundamentalism versus freedom of thought. Rachel’s budding emotions pull her away from her father, Reverend Brown, the religious leader of Hillsboro. As Rachel tells more of her story, her father and the form of Christianity practiced in Hillsboro appear more and more cruel and heartless.
Rachel relates that her father always frightened her, even from a young age. He publicly confirms her fears at a town prayer meeting, when he damns her soul for supporting Cates. As Rachel’s romantic interest, Cates, who teaches evolution to his students and brings an open mind to matters of science and religion, stands in bold opposition to Rachel’s father and his views. Perhaps most important, Cates refrains from imposing his own views on others and is willing to engage in constant questioning of ideas. Throughout Inherit the Wind, these two characters—Cates and Reverend Brown—test Rachel’s loyalties.
At the conclusion of the trial, Rachel separates from her father and departs with Cates—a choice that enables her personal liberation. The Judge – The judge presiding over Cates’s trial. The judge conducts the trial impartially, although his personal views about the Bible’s legitimacy are in line with those of the rest of the townspeople of Hillsboro. At the mayor’s prompting, the judge gives Cates a lenient sentence after the jury’s guilty verdict. Meeker – The bailiff at the Hillsboro courthouse. Meeker lets Cates in and out of his jail cell and jokes that Cates is a threat to the community.
Mrs. Brady – Matthew Harrison Brady’s wife. Mrs. Brady monitors her husband and nags him not to overeat. Brady calls her “Mother. ” Melinda Loomis – A twelve-year-old girl. Melinda believes in the Bible and fears the idea of evolution. Howard Blair – A student in Cates’s science class. Howard grasps the idea of evolution in only a rudimentary way, as we see when he asks a worm in the play’s opening scene what it wants to be when it grows up. At the trial, Howard gives testimony that is used against Cates. Mrs. Krebs – An outspoken Hillsboro woman.
On behalf of the Hillsboro Ladies’ Aid, Mrs. Krebs serves lunch to Brady on his arrival in town. Tommy Stebbins – An eleven-year-old boy who drowned while swimming in a river. Cates befriended Stebbins, who had a curious nature and enjoyed looking through Cates’s microscope. According to Reverend Brown, Stebbins was damned when he died because he was never baptized. Brown’s harsh condemnation of Stebbins disgusted Cates, who stopped attending church. Mr. Bannister – A member of the jury. Bannister has read neither Darwin nor the Bible because he is illiterate. Elijah – A mountain man.
The illiterate Elijah sells Bibles to the townspeople and preaches his beliefs to the crowd. Mayor – The mayor of Hillsboro. The mayor supports Brady and welcomes him to town by naming him an honorary colonel in the state militia. Under pressure from the state capitol, he instructs the judge to pass a lenient sentence at the trial’s conclusion. Tom Davenport – The local district attorney. Davenport assists Brady during the trial. He attempts to stop Drummond’s humiliation of Brady at the end of the trial, but by the time he objects, Brady has already made a fool of himself.
Harry Y. Esterbrook – A radio host from WGN in Chicago. Esterbrook broadcasts the announcement of the verdict and Cates’s sentencing and cuts off Brady in the middle of his victory speech. Jesse H. Dunlap – A farmer and cabinetmaker. Dunlap stands as a potential juror, but Drummond dismisses him because of his enthusiastic support of Brady. Sillers – An employee at the local feed store and a member of the jury. Drummond accepts Sillers as a juror after Sillers tells him that he focuses on making a living while his wife takes care of religious matters for both of them.