At the end of the analysis the study revealed the major reasons for examination malpractice which include parental pressure for good grades, value attached to certificate and so on. The study further recommend that parents should not put pressure on their children for good grades. Also emphasis should not be laid on certificates. CONTENT Title page Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of content TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 11 111 lV v Vl CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background to the Study 1 1. 2Statement of the Problem 3 1. 3 Purpose of the Study 4 1. Significance of the Study 4 1. 5Research Questions 4 1. 6Scope/Limitation of Study 5 1. 7 Definition of Terms 5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0Introduction7 2. 1Concept of Examination Malpractice10 2. 2Genesis of Examination Malpractice12 2. 3Forms of Examination Malpractice13 2. 4Sources of Examination Malpractice18 2. 5Reasons for Indulging in Examination Malpractice18 2. 6Incidence of Examination Malpractice in Nigeria 22 2. 7Effects of Examination Malpractice27 2. 8Examination Malpractice Among Secondary School Students 28 2. 9 Implication of Examination Malpractice on Education Development 30 . 10 Implication of Examination Malpractice on Academic, Moral Standard and Counseling 31 2. 11 Effort at Curbing Examination Malpractice 32 2. 12 Solution to Examination Malpractice in Secondary School. 37 2. 13 Conclusion 39 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 0 Introduction 40 3. 1Research Design 40 3. 2 Population of the Study40 3. 3 Sample/Sampling technique 41 3. 4 Research Instrument 41 3. 5 Validity of the Instrument 42 3. 6 Reliability of the Instrument 42 3. 7 Administration of Research Instrument 42 3. 8 Method of Data Analysis 42 CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 4. Introduction 43 4. 1 Analysis of respondents for teacher’s and student bio data 43 4. 2 Presentation and analysis of research question 47 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS |5. 0 |Introduction |54 | |5. 1 |Summary |54 | |5. 2 |Conclusion |55 | 5. 3 Recommendations56 References 56
APPENDIX About the Questionnaire questionnaire CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Education in the general sense covers the whole life of an individual from birth till death or from cradle to grave that shows that education is as old as man on earth. The formal school system is greatly influenced in its result on the lives of all who pass through it. In Nigeria before the 1840’s there was in existence a system of education. This was broadly traditional, occupationally oriented and informal apprenticeship system. This type of education as at that time was relevant to the needs of the society.
The advent and influence of the Christian missionary activities affected a change from the informal system of education to the western oriented type of education. Preference was no longer for hard work but acquisition of certificate. Every achievement or goal oriented tasks a certification of schooling. However, examinations play vital roles not only in our educational system but also in the society as a whole. The society demands from its members a diversity of specialized functions. In the Nigerian school system various forms of examinations are noticed.
These are the entrance examinations, the terminal and promotion examinations, the senior school certificate examination and the degree or diploma examinations. Students are required to pass any forms of examinations they partake in. But these days students now find various means of achieving success in these examinations and one of such ways is by cheating in examinations through leakage in examination papers, impersonation, external assistance, copying, smuggling of foreign materials, substitution of script and improper assignment.
The fact remains that examination malpractice has become usual practice in Nigeria. Examination has been recognized as forming the nucleus of education without which the enterprise will be incomplete. Empiricism shows that examinations indicate the extent of factual knowledge acquired by students, predict future educational achievement and provide a means of selecting suitable candidates for certain educational courses or occupation.
One of the principal aim of examination is to assess how much learning has taken place and to what extent the educational objectives and goals have been achieved. One serious problem plaguing Nigeria system of education today is large examination malpractice coupled with intellectual dishonesty. Our pupils and students devise as a daily routine, new tricks to beat genuine supervisors and examiners. The incidence of examination malpractice is multi dimensional in nature. Smuggling of prepared notes into examination hall.
They insult, embarrass, threaten and even assault invigilators and supervisors who failed to co operate with them in their unholy and nefarious acts. Cheating behaviour exhibited by the school, population is a big problem to our people. School administrators were recently called upon to desist from helping their students to perpetrate in examination malpractice. Individual however put the blame on lack of proper social value system; the high premium attached to paper qualifications as prerequisite for admission and gainful employment. . 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The occurrence of examination malpractice at any level of educational stratum possess the greatest threat to the validity and reliability of any examination and consequently to the authenticity and recognition of certificate issued. The numerous examination malpractice among secondary school students in Agidingbi Local Government over the years have become a growing concern since cheating is such a longstanding and global problem inherent by human beings.
Effort should therefore be directed towards controlling cheating behaviour and also finding the possible causes of the problem among secondary school students in Agidingbi Local Government. 1. 3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main purpose of this study is to find out the various forms of examinations malpractice among secondary schools students in Lagos State (A case study of Agidingbi Local Government) and also to find out the causes in order to proffer the kind of counseling strategies for curbing the undesirable behaviour.
This study will also help to find out parents role in encouraging examination malpractices. 1. 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The implementation of this finding will not only expose the extent to which students are involved in examination malpractice but will also suggest some remedies or a lasting solutions to this academic dishonesty. This study is also expected to help school administrators, teachers, students, education policy makers, employers of labour, ministry of Education and guidance counselors to curb or control cheating behaviour in schools. . 5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research questions for this study are stated below: • Is there any difference between students who cheat and who did not cheat in an examination? • Does examination malpractice contribute to educational development? • Why do students indulge in examination malpractice? • Are students aware of the penalty for examination malpractice? • What roles have the school counselors played so far in trying to curb these behaviors? 1. 6 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF STUDY This study will concentrate on examination malpractice, their causes, ffects and possible solution in selected schools in Agidingbi Local Government. 1. 7 DEFINITION OF TERMS In view of the fact that different meanings can be assigned will apply to the following words as used in this research work. • EXAMINATION: A test of capacity and knowledge. It is a determinants of a learner’s strength and weakness necessary for his/her academic adjustment and work life. • MALPRACTICE: It is a behaviour of a person contrary to laid down code of conduct. • CHEATING: Cheating is refer to a type of examination malpractice, which takes place in the examination hall. GUIDANCE: This is an assistance given to an individual either by an adult or counselor in order to help them discover themselves and cope with life situation. • COUNSELLING: This is a relationship which exist between a counselor and a counselee in order to provide solution a problem encountered by the counselee. • COUNSELOR: Is one who counsels, assists or help the students or an individual to solve academic and psychological problems. • COUNSELLEE: Is one who seeks advice or help from the counselor in solving his/her personal problems.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0 INTRODUCTION Education is the foundation upon which physical and technological developments rest. In Nigeria, education has been adopted as an instrument for national development. Therefore, governments, communities, private organizations and individuals have established educational institutions with a view of training the citizens for the development of the nation’s physical and human resources. One of the objectives of education in Nigeria is to prepare the young ones to face future challenges and develop hem to meet the nation’s manpower requirements. In educational institutions teaching and guidance activities are supposed to take place so that appropriate skills and knowledge can be acquired by the students. Furthermore, a machinery through which the extent of knowledge and skill acquisition is determined at each stage of education has been set up. This is in form of examination which organized in order to evaluate, assess and test knowledge and skills. Schools need to conduct examinations as yardstick for assessment. It is the most practical way of assessment in education.
Maduka (1993) defined examination as a way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study the candidate has mastered. Hornby (1995) defined an examination as a formal test of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of answering questions or practical exercises. Balognn (1999) also defined examination as the process through which students are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specified period. Examinations could be internal or external.
It could be oral or written, essay or objective type, theory or practical constitutes an integral part of the education process. Examples of internal examinations are continuous assessment tests, terminal, semester and annual or promotional examinations. Examples of external (public) examinations common m Nigerian schools are Common Entrance Examination for admission into secondary school. School Certificates examination is conducted by West African Examination (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO).
The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) and National Teachers’ Institute (NTI) conduct admission tests into tertiary institutions while National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) conducts professional examination for teachers and technicians respectively. The outcome of the examination is used as a basis for decision-making on the examinee’s ability. The examinee is consequently awarded a certificate which could qualified students for admission into a school, promotion into higher level of an institution and employment opportunities.
Nigeria’s education system like any other country has its problems, lapses, controversies and issues. Many problems confront Nigeria educational system and institutions prominent among them are the issue of examination malpractice. Examination malpractice is a kind of conduct that violates the acceptable laid down rules and regulations of Nigeria’s education system. On the other hand, examination malpractice is any wrong doing before, during or after any examination.
Although one may not be able to rule out examination malpractice in the past, the current trend is alarming and calls for proper management in order to save the nation’s most important sector. Whereas, in the past, students tended to hide the acts, now they advertise them with reckless abandon. It has become a prolific business enterprise branded with the name of private examination centers aided and abetted by corrupt examination officials, supported by parents who will not allow their children to be left out from the Trojan gift of malpractice.
Examination malpractice occurs in both internal and external examination. It is a problem which has been afflicting the educational system for many years. It seems to have defied solutions, as all antidotes applied so far have been faulted by fraudsters. In fact, it constitutes the most serious problem facing Nigerian education system in general and secondary education in particular. Therefore, there is need to sanitize the nation’s education system by getting rid of examination malpractices. 2. 1 CONCEPT OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE
Examination malpractice is defined as a deliberate wrong doing contrary to official examination rules designed to place a candidate at unfair advantage or disadvantage. Nwana (2000), Examination malpractice is described as the “massive and unprecedented abuse of rules and regulations pertaining to internal and external examinations, beginning from the setting of such examinations through the taking of the examinations, their marking and grading, to the release of the results and the issuance of certificates”.
According to Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary malpractice is a wrong or illegal behaviour exhibited by a person while discharging professional responsibilities. In the light of this definition, examination malpractice is simply illegally obtaining an answer to an examination question from any other source other than the brain of the examinee. Salami (1994) defines examination malpractices as an 1mproper and dishonest act associated with examination with a view to obtaining unmerited advantage.
Shonekan (1996) defines it as any act of omission or comm1ss1on that contravenes the rules and regulations of the examination body to the extent of undermining the validity and reliability of the tests and ultimately, the integrity of the certificates issued. Oyekan (1996) also views examination malpractice as a deliberate act of indiscipline adopted by students or their privileged accomplices to secure facile success and advantage before, during and after the administration of a test or examination.
Oluyeba and Daramola (1993) defined examination malpractice as any irregular behaviour exhibited by candidate or anybody charged with the examination inside or outside the examination hall before, during or after such examination. Ojerinde (2002) he claimed that examination malpractice is no longer a desperate candidates’ affair, rather school teachers and even principals are now involved in the perpetration of this vice. Even with the promulgation of Decree No 33 of 1999(Now Act of Parliament) designed to check examination malpractice, the crime appears to be on the increase. . 2 GENESIS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE The very date and place examination malpractice started in the world is not known but it could be said to be one of the fall-outs of the fall of man in the Garden of Eden when Satan deceived Adam and Eve to sin. Satan solved this ugly seed which germinated into various forms of sin and vices including examination malpractice. Examination malpractice has been in existence a long time ago. According to various sources examination malpractice was first reported in Nigeria in 1914 when there was a leakage of senior Cambridge Local Examination.
After independence, there was hardly any year when no examination malpractice was not recorded. In Nigeria, however, examination malpractice became prominent m the 1970s, when youths who were in the colleges and universities before the advent of the Nigerian civil war in 1967, who were conscripted into the army during the war, came back at the end of the war in 1970 and went back to schools to continue with their education.
These youths who understood the language of the trigger of the gun more than what the teacher was saying, were not psycho-emotionally stable and prepared for examinations and so resorted to alternative means of passing the examinations such as direct cheating in examinations, bribing examiner to allow them to indulge in mass cheating, hiring of machineries to write for them.
This was clearly manifested in the West African School Certificate Examination of 1970/1971 when all manner of irregularities ranging from examination malpractice to leakage of examination question papers characterized with the conduct of the examination. 2. 3 FORMS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE There are dimension of examination malpractices year-in-year-out, students come up with new dimensions of examination malpractices.
The instances of examination malpractices vary. Some of the forms of examination malpractice are discussed below: 1. Bringing of Foreign Materials Into Examination Hall: This is a situation where students bring into the examination hall notes, textbooks and other prepared materials. The method is nicknamed as hide and seek, microchips, tattoo and magic desk.
Sometimes, students bring into the hall unauthorized materials like sophiscated and scientific calculators Abba (1998) identified some methods like giraffing, contraband, bullet, super print, escort, pregnant biros and so on. 2. Assistance from Educational Stakeholders: Examination stakeholders include parents, teachers, lecturers, security agents, printers, and staff of examination bodies. Some parents go to any length in buying question papers for their children while some others even buy certificates for their children.
Supervisors colluding with teachers, school principals or students by allowing teachers to come around to teach the students during examination period, lecturers or teachers releasing question papers or giving underserved marks or allowing students to illegally re-take examination papers. Security agents, printers and staff of examination bodies also sell question papers. 3. Irregular Activities Inside and Outside the Examination Hall: Students who had the mind to cheat exhibit strange and unwholesome behaviours. They use various methods such as: 1.
Stealing, converting,substituting ormisappropriatingthe scripts of other candidates. 11. Substituting worked scripts during or after an examination 111. Tearing part of the question paper or answer booklet during the examination to enhance cheating. 1v. Seeking and receiving helps from other candidates. 4. Impersonation: This is a situation where a candidate sits m an examination for another candidate, thereby pretending to be the real or original candidate. Impersonation is becoming very rampant, even among secondary school candidates. Afolabi (1998) listed various ethods that have been devised by students and these include: a) Posing as a bonafide candidate: Impersonators write the examination on behalf of the candidate they are impersonating. Undergraduates, graduates and Youth Carpers engage in this type of cheating. b) Entry for similar subject: The plot is hatched right from the entry stage by making the impersonator to enter for the same subjects and sit for the examinations in the hall with the candidate; he writes the candidate’s name and number on his booklet while the candidate writes the impersonator’s and they exchange scripts before submitting. ) Multiple Entries: This is when candidates enter for the same examination in several parts of the locality. It has also been observed that several candidates struggle unnecessarily for live question papers at the beginning of the paper which are then passed to touts for assistance. Also, candidates deliberately come into the hall with the sole aim of smuggling the question paper out as soon as the paper starts and bringing the solution inside later. 5. Insult or Assault on Examination Officials: there are cases of students insulting examination officials as they carry out their businesses.
The aim is to distract them from effective supervision, so that they can have a way out. Sometimes students disturb the conduct of examinations due to poor preparation. 6. Electronically Assisted Malpractices: In recent times, it has been discovered that students make use of electronic gadgets to cheat during examinations. Such things as unauthorized scientific calculators, organizers, compact disc (the smallest size) and mobile phones (GSM) to take advantage of others. 7. Collusion: This is a situation where two or more candidates agree to receive or give assistance to each other.
If it is verbal, this is called ECOMOG or ECOWAS. Maduabum (1998) identified the use of terms like ‘laya’, ECOMOG and so on which are also common among students. Afolabi (1998) said that collusion involves exchange of scripts, passing notes for help from outside and inside the hall, delaying commencement of examination in one centre to obtain question paper from nearby centre which has started, collusion arising from bribes or threat to the lives and or properly of supervisors. 8.
Mass Cheating: Candidates m an examination hall at times are massively involved m one or some of the irregularities afore mentioned. 9. Inscription: Students have now advanced to the level of inscribing materials or information on anything like parts of their body, for example palms, things, rulers, chairs, tables, walls of examination halls and so on. Some student even code points and synthesize their notes in such a way that they will be the only one that could understand and use them for cheating. 10.
Personality Connection: These are cases where some influential students make use of godfathers in politics, economic high towers, parents and cult members to influence the outcome of examinations. 11. Intimidation: Examination officials including supervisors and marker of papers are physically threatened. This involves people seeking support for individual candidates. Candidates also place weapons in clear view of supervisors in order to intimidate them 12. Special Centres: Here corrupt examination officials establish xamination centres where candidates can complete the examination with the support of helpers and without supervision. 2. 4 SOURCES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE Considering the various malpractices in external examinations in Nigeria, one could identify the following sources that could bedevil any examination bodies: (a) Examiner who set and mark the paper (b)Officers from such examining body who process the question papers, handling the printing arrangements and transport the printed question papers. (c) The printers of the question papers d) The custodian who keep the question papers (e) The supervisors and invigilators at the various examination centers (f) The candidates who want to pass at all cost. 2. 5 REASONS FOR INDULGING IN EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE Investigation reveals the cause of examination malpractice which 1s discussed below: 1. High Stakes of the Examination: Success in a public examination can have profound, immediate and long-term impacts on a candidate’s life. Examination success and secondary school graduation represents the sole avenue for poor students to secure a non-menial job.
Many parents are keen to resort to various corrupt tactics to ensure that their children “pass” the external examination. 2. Teacher and School Status: In many instances, teachers and school reputations depend on the success of students in public examinations. This is particularly true where official or unofficial, league tables of schools are published. 3. Quota System: Quota system often are used to determine pass rates where a student perceives that success is dependent on the number of available places rather than on attaining a given level of performance, they may conclude that success is due to factors beyond their control.
They may feel that success cannot be guaranteed by hard work, and thus become poorly motivated. Because they are poorly prepared for the examination they may see little alternative to malpractice. 4. Inadequate School Facilities and Teachers: Shortage of textbooks, inadequate teacher training, teacher absence from work, teacher lacking subject matter competency, strikes and frequent school closures are common features of education in many secondary schools.
Parents and students may perceive conditions of learning to be so inadequate that they have little option but to resort to unfair means to increase the likelihood that the students will pass the examination. 5. Inadequacies in the Public Examination: Where the standard aimed for is too high or obscure teachers and students may lose confidence in their abilities to master the material. In such instances, students may resort to smuggling materials such as textbooks and notes into the examination hall. 6.
Corrupt Government: Where students perce1ve that rewards are basedon personal rather than professional criteria, where they perceive widespread corruption in federal and local levels, they are less likely to adhere to formal examination regulations than m societies where high levels of integrity are perceived to prevail. 7. Location of Examination Centers: Remote centers tend to receive materials in advance, this increasing the opportunity of gaining access to examination papers. They are less likely to be closely supervised by examination authorities than centers in urban areas. . Low Salary Levels: Salary level of teachers, examination officials and examination supervisors are frequently below poverty line. In such instances, bribes from parents may prove irresistible. 9. Value Attached to Certificates: The unnecessary high premium attached to paper qualification by society as prerequisite for her educational and vocational pursuit is contributing immensely to examination malpractice in Nigeria. Since the advent of formal school system, it has become attached to the acquisition of certificate or to the extent an individual has climbed in the educational ladder.
The consequence of this has been and is still the do or due attitude of potential benefactors of such certificates. This attempt to achieve this societal expectation has driven most individuals into fraudulent ways of acquiring certificates. Based on research findings and results of other researchers. Obe (1998) reported other causative factors of examination malpractice, includes the following: Some examination being too difficult and poorly moderated before and after examination (i) Over emphasis on certificates and paper qualification ii) Lack of preparation for examination by students. (iii) Shortage of qualified teachers. (iv) Test anxiety and examination phobia (v) Too much belief in long leg and god-fatherism (vi) Low morality and general indiscipline by society at large (vii) Shortage of readable, well illustrated textbooks (viii) Poor library facilities (ix) Poor study habits (x)Lack of confidence due to history of repeated failures in a subject (i. e. low self concept of academic ability). (xi) General fear of failure (xii) General absence of moral and religious education xiii) Low aptitude (forcing oneself to study a subject for which one has little or not talent) (xiv) Limitation of, and identification with bad peer groups (xv) Lack of motivation by teachers and parents (xvi) Poor examination invigilation (xvii) Pervasive bribery and corruption in the society. (xviii) Parental indiscipline and poor home background (xix) Education underfunding and government laxity (xx) Poor school environment 2. 6 INCIDENCE OFEXAMINATIONMALPRACTICE IN NIGERIA One serious problem playing with Nigeria’s system of education today is arge-scale of examination malpractice coupled with intellectual dishonesty. The West African Examination Council has blamed the high incidence of examination malpractices some school operators, who regard education as a business venture and not as a social service. WAEC stated this in a communique issued after the 51st meeting of the National Examination Committee of the body to review cases of examination malpractice among the candidates who sat for the 2010 November/December West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Lagos. The National Examination
Committee (NEC) is the highest decision making organ of the council on the conduct of the May/June and Nov/Dec. Examination diets of WAEC in the country. It meets twice in a year to review the conduct of its two annual examinations with a view to reviewing recorded cases of malpractice during the conduct of the examination and marking of scripts. The body in the communique, which was presented to newsmen by the NEC’s Acting Chairman, Chief Adeniyi Falade, also expressed serious concern over the level of malpractice in its examinations.
Falade said that 51,876 cases of examination malpractices were considered during the meeting, adding that special and clemency cases were also observed that “the culture of examination malpractice in the nation’s secondary school system had been entrenched. Appropriate sanctions as prescribed by the council’s regulation governing the conduct of the examinations, he said were applied by the committee to reported cases. Table 1 below shows parentages of candidates in the school candidates’ xamination involved in the various forms of examination malpractice on annual basis from 2000 to 2005. TABLE 1:TREND OF INCIDENCEOFEXAMINATION MALPRACTICE INWAECSCHOOL CANDIDATES’ EXAMINATION (2000-2005) IN NIGERIA |SIN |Type Of Malpractice |Percentage of candidate involved | | | |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 | |I. |Bringing m of foreign materials |1. 3 |1. 27 |1. 43 |1. 34 |1. 60 |l. l7 | |2. |Irregular activities inside and outside |l. l6 |1. 45 |1. 81 |2. 80 |2. 35 |1. 46 | | |the examination hall | | | | | | | |3. |Collusion |3. 71 |2. 21 |7. 05 |6. 00 |6. 45 |4. 06 | |4. |Impersonation |0. 07 |0. 06 |0. 9 |0. 11 |0. 11 |0. 06 | |5. |Leakage |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil | |6. |Mass cheating |Nil |Nil |Nil |0. 61 |0. 40 |0. 01 | |7. |Insult/Assault on supervisors and invigilators |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 02 |0. 02 |0. 07 |0. 07 | |8. |New/miscellaneous cases |0. 25 |0. 04 |0. 7 |Nil |0. 19 |0. 03 | | |Total |6. 46 |5. 07 |10. 47 |10. 88 |ll. l7 |6. 86 | Source: WAEC Annual Reports. The table shows that the incidence of examination malpractice fluctuated during the period. For instance in 2000, 6. 46% of the 636,064 candidates for the examination were involved in examination malpractice. In 2001, 5. 07% of the I ,025,185 candidates for the examination were involved in examination malpractice.
In 2002, 10. 47% of the 909,888 candidates for the examination were involved in examination malpractice. In 2003, the percentage increased to I 0. 88% (of I ,066,831 candidates for the examination) while in 2004, there was a further increase to ll. l7% (of the 1,035,280 candidate for the examination). However, there was a sharp drop in the percentage of candidates involved in examination malpractice to 6. 86% (of the 1,080, 162 candidates for the examination) in 2005.
Table II below shows the percentages of candidates in the private candidates examination who were involved in the various forms of examination malpractice on annual basis from 2000 to 2005. |SIN |Type Of Malpractice |Percentage of candidate involved | | | |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 | |1. |Bringing m of foreign materials |2. 83 |3. 70 |2. 06 |1. 2 |1. 99 |3. 20 | |2. |Irregular activities inside and outside |1. 24 |1. 32 |2. 20 |4. 52 |3. 65 |5. 37 | | |the examination hall | | | | | | | |3. |Collusion |1. 27 |1. 33 |1. 70 |1. 89 |4. 20 |6. 75 | |4. |Impersonation |0. 39 |0. 44 |0. 33 |0. 73 |0. 0 |1. 01 | |5. |Leakage |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil | |6. |Mass cheating |0. 18 |Nil |0. 12 |0. 07 |Nil |0. 26 | |7. |Insult/Assault on supervisors and |0. 12 |0. 06 |0. 07 |0. 03 |0. 03 |0. 03 | | |invigilators | | | | | | | |8. New/miscellaneous cases |0. 19 |0. 19 |0. 06 |0. 10 |0. 05 |0. 06 | | |Total |6. 22 |7. 04 |6. 54 |9. 16 |10. 62 |16. 68 | Source: WAEC Annual Reports. The incidence of examination malpractice for the November/December Private candidates’ examination also fluctuated within the period. For instance, in 2000, 6. 22% of the total candidates of 850,749 were involved in various forms of examination malpractice.
This percentage rose to 7. 04% (of the total candidate of 888,626) in 2001. In 2002, the percentage of candidates involved in examination malpractice dropped to 6. 54% (of the total candidate of 966,810). This percentage rose again to 9. 16% (of the total candidate of 528,347) in 2003. The rise in the percentage of candidates involved in examination malpractice continued in 2004 and 2005 with 10. 62% (of total candidate of 494,987) and 16. 68% (of total candidate of 82,450 for the examination) respectively. 2. 7 EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE Ijaiya (2001) examination malpractice indicates a declining quality of education. This implies that, the quality of education in Nigeria is low, since involvement in it spreads across the country. This will affect national development adversely. Moreover, those who engage in cheating at a lower level are likely to continue at higher level of education. When they graduate into the society, their previous attitudes can easily lead them into corrupt practices.
Another effect is that, people who possess certificates through cheating could use the certificates to secure jobs which they would not be able to perform. Poor performance would lead to poor productivity. Thus, development and sustenance of human and material resources would be at stake. Perhaps it brings shame and embarrassment to their families and relations. Legal sword of justice might fall on them leading to expulsion and cancellation of results. In addition, it discredits certificates issued by national examination bodies and institutions of higher learning and the nation as a whole.
This further leads to problem of unfulfilled dreams because God distastes injustice and therefore, does not condone something that is wrong. When a candidate is caught and expelled, there will be no certificate to show for whatever years they might have put into their educational career. 2. 8 EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS The West African examination council classifies examination misconduct in secondary schools into two categories leakage’s and irregularities.
Eperoku (1977) a leakage occurs when one or more candidates have fore knowledge of the questions before an examination begins. Irregularities are the various method employed by students to cheat during examination e. g. copying from other candidates, giraffing and smuggling of material into examination halls, threatening supervisors and invigilators, receiving help solicited or unsolicited from sources outside the examination halls, submission of multiple scripts, use of coded or sign language. Malpractice in an examination has been in existence a long time ago.
For example, there was a leakage of senior Cambridge local examination in 1914. After independence there was hardly any year when no examination malpractice was not recorded. There were leakages in West African Examination Council (WAEC) paper in 1963, 1967, 1971, 1977 and 1981. A panel of enquiry, set up by the Federal Government to investigate the 1977 examination leakage, recommended sanction on WAEC officials who were involved in the malpractice, shedding of WAEC workload and use of continuous assessment as a factor for award of certificate.
Consequently, new examination bodies were established. Another measure was the federal government’s promulgation of Decree 20 in 1984, which stipulated a 21 year jail term for those found guilty of examination malpractice. Also, there was decree 33 of 1999 stipulating imprisonment for a term up to five years or fine of N50,000 to Nl 00,000 for any person convicted of examination malpractice. Inspite of these measures the menace continued to occur in virtually all public and institutionally organized examinations.
In 2006, the Federal Ministry of Education blacklisted and derecognized 324 secondary schools across the nation as centres for conducting public examination from 2007 to 2010. The distribution of the schools which were found guilty of examination malpractices is shown in table 1. Table 1: Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Secondary Schools |Zone |No of schools involved |Percentage | |North Central |54 |16. | |North-East |08 |2. 5 | |North-West |12 |3. 6 | |South -East |48 |14. 8 | |South – South |116 |36. | |South West |86 |26. 5 | |Total |324 |100% | The table shows that examination malpractice in secondary schools is a national problem. 2. 9 IMPLICATION OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The implications of dishonest approaches to the acquisition of academic certificates are over-whelming and obvious.
Firstly, large scale examination malpractice, type of which we are witnessing today, make nonsense of educational qualifications of learning and the nation as a whole. This is bound to have adverse effect on the credibility of certificates issued by our institutions of learning and examining bodies. Also, our students may not see the need to work and prepare hard for examinations, if concrete measures are not taken to stamp out this ugly act. Moreover, the few honest learners in schools may feel cheated if the trend of examination malpractice means is unchecked.
Perhaps, this will affect their morale and productivity adversely. The end result is that the entire nation suffers when its destiny is placed in the hands of half-baked graduates with low mental ability and men and women who have no conscience. Commenting on the danger posed to the nation at large by the ugly incidence of examination malpractice Ekpu (1991) remarked that: Some students buy question papers with their bodies if they are female, dull, wayward and beautiful. Some others buy question paper with money if they are rich, dull, lazy and ambitious.
Those who sell them includes teachers, supervisors, the corrupt students, teachers, adult, the cheat and his accomplice are not doing any good to educational development. 2. 10 IMPLICATION OFEXAMINATIONMALPRACTICE ON ACADEMIC, MORAL STANDARDS AND COUNSELLING The consequences of malpractice on our academic standard of education will bring about laziness and weariness on the part of students. Perhaps teachers will feel reluctant in carry out their official duties. There will be large production of unproductive students into the society.
This academic dishonesty can result into other nefarious act by students which derail their morale. Cognitive approach used by the counsellor will bring about positive effect on learner because it is used to assist the students to be rational in thinking and expectation. There is no basis to expect everything to go on perfectly at all times. Failure in examination does not terminate a person’s existence in life. There is up’s and downs, and no single individual can satisfy the expectations of all his or her others significant.
The school counsellors with effective study techniques can provide educational counselling for all students, with particulars concentration on those with problems of effective understanding. Remedial measures will prove useful in helping the slow learners to improve their performance by other means other than cheating. The counsellor and teachers can work together to effect continuous assessment on students and teachers should ensure that students are been assessed on periodic basis. . 11 EFFORT AT CURBING EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE For a very long time, the West African Examinations council was a lone voice in the fight against examination malpractice in Nigeria. The situation has however, shown tremendous improvement as government (states and federal) and other stakeholders have not only expressed concern over the cankerworm but have indeed taken laudable steps to further the fight against it. 1. EFFORTS BY THE COUNCIL
The West African Examinations council has, since its inception, devised and reviewed its strategies for curbing examination malpractice some of the efforts of the council include: (a) Public Enlightenment: The current awareness in the country today of the evils of examination irregularity/malpractice is attributable to the campaign launched formally by WAEC in 1984. The campaign has indirectly given birth to today’s Examination Ethics crusade in the country. (b)Information to Candidates: The council publishes in book form and also on its website the rules and regulations guiding its examinations.
These give details of the various offences and the sanctions applicable to them. (c) Sensitization of Government/Stakeholders: The council, as a matter of policy, avails the govermnent and stakeholders of decisions taken on reported cases of malpractice by its appropriate committees. (d) Sanctions: The council promptly sanctions candidate caught cheating in its examinations and report teachers and other operatives to their employers for appropriate sanctions. Any staff of the council found to have been involved in examination malpractice/irregularity is regarded as a security risk and is summarily dismissed.
Table III and IV below show the sanctions applied and the number of culprits sanctioned in the May/June and November/December 2000 – 2005 WASSCE in Nigeria Table III: Sanctions applied in the May/June 200- – 2005 WASSCE |SIN |DECISIONS |NUMBER INVOLVED | | | |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 | |1. Entire results cancelled |30,216 |28,605 |30,384 |50,602 |31,897 |16,821 | |2. |Subject results cancelled |9,340 |23,507 |65,135 |61,362 |82,117 |56,109 | |3. |Candidates barred or handed over to|417 |643 |891 |1,362 |1,814 |133 | | |the police | | | | | | | |4. Principals warned |19 |04 |20 |31 |02 |17 | |5. |Supervisors blacklisted |02 |04 |07 |09 |Nil |Nil | |6. |Schools warned |02 |Nil |32 |60 |132 |178 | |7. |Schools derecognized |03 |02 |09 |33 |40 |11 | |8. Supervisors/invigilator s reported |06 |06 |05 |04 |13 |09 | Table IV: sanction applied in the Nov/Dec. 2000-2005 WASSCE |SIN |DECISIONS |NUMBER INVOLVED | | | |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 | |1. Entire results cancelled |65,093 |43,564 |45,070 |40,031 |26,188 |25,116 | |2. |Subject results cancelled |12,674 |15,459 |18,176 |10,397 |26,704 |38,759 | |3. |Candidates barred or handed over to |3,407 |3,847 |3,181 |4,037 |3,629 |3,852 | | |the police | | | | | | | |4. Supervisors/invigilator s reported for|03 |08 |04 |19 |61 |11 | | |sanction | | | | | | | |5. |Centres warned |02 |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil |Nil | |6. Centres discontinued |Nil |07 |Nil |03 |Nil |Nil | | | | | | | | | | | |for usage for conduct of examination| | | | | | | |7. |Invigilators/supervisor blacklisted |03 |Nil |01 |04 |Nil |Nil | e) Embarrassment of Certificates: The council introduced photo embossed certificates to reduce the incidence of impersonation in its examinations. (f) Use of security Bags for the collection of security materials: Question papers are collected by supervisors in locked security bags to which they have no keys. The keys are kept by the WAEC staff at the custodianpoint of collection of the papers and the schools’ examination officers at the point of delivery to the school centre. g)Mounting of Anti-malpractice Bill Boards: Anti-malpractice bill boards are mounted in vantage positions throughout the country to increase public awareness of the ills of examination malpractice. (h) In-House Security measures: 1. The council has created the post-Examinations Departments to handle cases of irregularities and malpractice m its examinations. 11. Newly recruited officers of the council are administered with oaths of secrecy on assumption of duty. 111.
Delivery of questions papers and other examination materials to custodian points/distribution centres is done on daily basis and by senior officers of the council. 1v. The council has developed security regulations which are reviewed periodically and made available to officers for proper guidance. Any breach of any of the regulation as is promptly sanctioned. v. The examination centre supervisors are swapped on daily basis to guard against undue familiarity with and influence from the school. 2.
EFFORT OF GOVERNMENTS AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS The govermnents and non-govermnental organisations (NGO’s) in Nigeria have joined in the crusade against examination malpractice. Some of the measures adopted by the govermnents are as follows: 1. Deployment of senior officials of the ministries of Education (Federal and States levels) on inspection of examination centres 11. Monitoring of the enrollment of candidates for the school examinations to prevent non-school candidates from registering for the examination. 111.
Sanctioning of erring schools, principals, supervisors and other examination officials 2. 12 SOLUTION TO EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE No one can claim to have all the solutions to the eradication of examination malpractice. However, the following could assist in stemming the tide: (i) Moral Instruction: Is the detailed information, which concerns the principles of right and wrong behaviours. Human morality springs from emotional disposition that are hardwired into our spices. Man is a complete entity, and there is no emphasis on the development of the whole individual that can play out morals.
All children are born with a running start on the path to moral development. These children grow up to become adults in the society. This is the more reason why children should be trained m self discipline and fed with useful instructions. (ii) Efficient Examination Management: Education is expected to provide full training for children and training involves examination and other forms of assessment from time to time to ascertain their level of knowledge and skills acquired. This is the more reason, examinations must be well managed. iii) Full implementation of the law: Govermnent and its agencies should henceforth stop handling cases of examination malpractices with kid gloves. The law should be implemented without fear or favour. Anyone caught cheating should be made to face the full wrath of the law and in addition, the names of such culprits should be published in newspapers to serve as deterrent. (iv) Creation of Learning- friendly environment in schools. (v)Provision of necessary school infrastructure and revamping of decayed ones. (vi) Adequate equipped school libraries and laboratories. vii) Employment of qualified teachers at all levels of education. (viii) Training and retraining of teachers to equip them for the challenges posed by technology driven world. (ix) Appropriate recognition and remuneration of teachers. (x) Societal re-engineering and re-orientation to revamp moral values. (xi) Students should develop an interest towards learning rather than relying on bookwork. 2. 13 CONCLUSION Examination malpractice has almost come to stay in our secondary school system judging from the rate at which they occur.
Various forms, causes, effects and solution to examination malpractice have been identified and discussed. If all efforts are not geared towards managing examinations in schools the implication is that malpractices will increase and certificates issued at all levels will become useless, not recognized locally and internationally. If we know that corrective steps should be taken if education will continue to serve as bedrock of development of our nation rather than becoming a prey to other nations through this cankerworm.
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers the methods used in carrying out this study. It also highlights the salient issues of this research work as well as approaches adopted in carrying out the research. This chapter describes the following: Research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, research instrument, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument, administration of research instrument, method of data analysis 3. 1 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study was a descriptive survey. A survey research is a useful scientific tool, which is used when one is interested in opinion or attitude of people as well as the relationship of those attitudes to the respondent’s behaviour. 3. 2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY The population of the study covers all the senior secondary school teachers and students in Mushin Local Government area. 3. 3 SAMPLE/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Sample is that part of population observed for the purpose of making scientific interference about the population.
The sample of twenty (20) teachers and one hundred (100) students was selected from the following schools in Mushin local government. •Igbo-Owu secondary school •Eko boys high school •Uba boys high school • New State high school •Ajuwoni Secondary School 3. 4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A questionnaire was designed in this study to assess both teachers and student perception of cheating behaviours. The questionnaire was divided into two sections. Section A contains the personal information of the respondent while section B comprises of question formulated in line with the research questions.
The respondent will be required to choose by ticking answer ranging from Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) Strongly Disagree (SD). 3. 5 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT The questionnaire prepared was submitted to the project supervisor who made all necessary corrections with regards to the items on the questionnaire before it was administered. 3. 6 RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT The reliability of the instrument is concerned with the consistency obtained from the result. 3. 7 ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
After obtaining permission from the principal of each schools, the researcher administered the questionnaire to the teacher having explained to them the purpose of the study as well as the research questions. 3. 8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS In analyzing the data, the responses from the questionnaire were collected and grouped in tables according to sources of information. The simple percentage method was used to analyze the personal data collected and was also used for data analysis. CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 4. INTRODUCTION Earlier in chapter one the research questions for the study were indicated. The research questions formed the basis of the questions contained in the research instruments administered for the research. In this chapter data collected are presented and analyzed to see how much the research questions addressed the prevailing problems. In this chapter, respondent biodata and responses from the questionnaires are presented in the table below. 4. 1 ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENT FOR TEACHER’S AND STUDENT BIODATA TABLE I RESPONDENT ON SEX Sex |Frequency |Percentage | |Male |8 |40% | |Female |12 |60% | |Total |20 |100% | From the figure in the table, 40% of respondent are male while 60% are female. TABLE II
RESPONDENT ON MARITAL STATUS |Status |Frequency |Percentage | |Single |4 |20% | |Married |16 |80% | |Total |20 |100% | From the table above 20% of respondent are single while 80% of respondent are married. TABLE III RESPONDENT AGE Age Group |Frequency |Percentage | |25-30 |3 |15% | |31-35 |8 |40% | |36-40 |7 |35% | |41 and above |2 |10% | |Total |20 |100% |
The above table respondents respondent’s age 15% of respondent fall within the age of 25 – 30years 40% of respondent fall within the age of 31 – 35years 35% of respondent fall within the age of 36 – 40years and lastly 10% of respondent fall within the age of 41yrs and above. TABLE IV QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS |Educational qualification |Frequency |Percentage | |ONDIHND |1 |5% | |NCE |2 |10% | |B. Ed |10 |50% | |B.
Sc |5 |25% | |M. Ed |2 |10% | |Total |20 |100% | Based on the above computation 5% of respondent are ONDIHND holder, 10% of respondent are NCE holder, 50% of respondent are B. Ed holder, 25% of respondent are B. Sc holder and 10% of respondent are M. Ed holder. TABLEV RESPONDENT’S WORKING EXPERIENCE Years of Service |Frequency |Percentage | |1- 5 yrs |12 |60% | |6-10yrs |6 |30% | |ll-15yrs |2 |10% | |16-20 yrs |- |- | |Above 20yrs |- |- | |Total |20 |100% | From the table above 60% of respondent had been in service for 1 – 5years, 30% for 6- 1Oyears, 10% for 11 – 15years. STUDENT BIO DATA TABLE VI Respondent on sex Based on the above computation 53% of respondent are male while 47% of respondents are female. TABLE VII Age |Frequency |Percentage | |13- 15 years |62 |62% | |16- 18 years |31 |31% | |Above18 years |7 |7% | |Total |20 |100% | From the figure in this table 62% of respondent fall within the age of 13 – 15years, 31% of respondent fall within the age of 16 – 18years and 7% of respondent fall within the age of 18 years and above. 4. 2 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH QUESTION
The questions were put forward to the respondents to know the reason why student indulge in examination malpractice. The respondent’s responses are presented in the table below: RESEARCH QUESTION 1: Does Examination Malpractice contribute to Educational development Table 1 SINSTATEMENTSA%A%SD%D%Total%I. Examination malpractice 1m prove academic performance of student43108625244371201002. Examination malpractice brings about low productivity among students5848363014121210120100 3. Examination malpractice has led to other nefarious act among students30254840242018151201004. Examination malpractice s a cankerworm in our educational institution and society at large. 38325042141218141201005. Examination malpractice IS rampant among secondary school student4437423520171411120100 The analysis of table 1 reveals that 11% of the respondents agreed that examination malpractice improve academic performance of student while 89% of the respondents disagreed that examination malpractice improve academic performance of student. The table also showed that 78% agreed that examination malpractice brings about low productivity among students. However 22% of the respondents disagreed that examination malpractice brings about low productivity among student.
From table 1,65% of the respondents agreed that examination malpractice has led to other nefarious act among student while 35% of the respondents are disagreed that examination malpractice has led to other nefarious act among student. From the same table, 74% of the respondent agreed that examination malpractice is a cankerworm in our educational institution and the society at large while 26% disagreed that examination is a cankerworm in our educational institution and the society at large. From this same table 72% of the respondents agreed that examination malpractice is rampant among secondary school students while 28% of the respondents disagreed that examination malpractice is rampant among secondary school students.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2: WHY DO STUDENTS INDULGE IN EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE Table 2 SINSTATEMENTSA%A%SD%D%Total%1. Parental pressure for good result leads student into cheating50423831131119161201002. Value attached to certificate leads student into examination malpractice30265746161317151201003. Student indulge in examination malpractice order to get good grades5748413412101081201004. Students from poor homes are more likely to engage in examination malpractice22182622403332271201005. Student who are encumbered with domestic chores are hindered from personal study61503812109811120100
Analysis from table 2 shows that out of 120 respondents, 73% of the respondents agreed that parental pressure for good result lead students into cheating while 27% of the respondents disagreed that parental pressure for good result leads student into cheating. The table also showed that 72% of the respondents agreed that value attached to certificates leads student into examination malpractice while 28% of the respondents disagreed that value attached to certificate lead student into examination malpractice. Similarly, 40% of the respondents agreed that students from poor home are more likely to engage in examination malpractice, 60% of the respondents disagreed that students from poor homes are more likely to engage in examination.
It was shown in the same table that 82% of the respondents agreed that student indulge in examination malpractice in order to get good grades while 18% of the respondents disagreed that student indulge in examination malpractice in order to get good grades. 82% of the respondent agreed that students who are encumbered with domestic chores are hindered from personal study while 18% of the respondents disagreed that students who are encumbered with domestic chores are hundred from personal study. RESEARCH QUESTION 3: ARE STUDENTS AWARE OF THE PENALTY FOR EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE Table 3 SINSTATEMENTSA%A%SD%D%Total%1. Students are prevented from continuing with their examination when caught cheating48405647651081201002. Students caught cheating an examination are dismissed or expelled from school36304840242014101201003. Comments are made on the student script by invigilators when caught cheating4235665565651201004. Teachers detect malpractice during marking of scripts candidate caught are severely punished12106453363087120100 Table 3 shows that 87% of the respondents agreed that students are prevented from continuing with their examination when caught cheating while 13% of the respondent disagreed that students are prevented from continuing with their examination when caught cheating.
The table also shows that 70% of the respondents agreed that students caught cheating are dismissed or expelled from school. However, 30% of the respondents disagreed that student caught cheating are dismissed or expelled from school. Also 90% of the respondents agreed that comments are made on the student script by invigilators when caught cheating while 10% of the respondent disagreed to the statement. RESEARCH QUESTION 4: WHAT ROLES HAVE THE SCHOOL COUNSELLORS PLAYED IN CURBING THESE BEHAVIOUR Table 4 SINSTATEMENTSA%A%SD%D%Total%1. Counsellors help students to 1m prove In their academic performance54453025121024201201002. Counsellor guide and encourage students towards success42354638181514121201003. Counsellor’s interest In students ability in relation to their performance help students to overcome examination fear. 3731544517141210120100 Analysis from Table 4 shows that 70% of the respondents agreed that counsellors help students to improve on their academic performance while 30% disagreed that counsellor help students to improve in their academic performance. Similarly, 73% of the respondents agreed that counselors guide and encourage students towards success while 27% of the respondent disagreed with the view.
However, 76% of the respondents agreed that counsellors interest in students ability in relation to their performance help students to overcome examination fear while 24% of the respondents disagreed that counsellors interest in students ability in relation to the performance help students to overcome examination fear. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the summary of the study as well as conclusion and recommendations with regards to the findings made from the research 5. 1 SUMMARY The researcher was aimed at finding vanous examination malpractices among secondary school students.
It is patently cleared from the survey that the problem of examination malpractice has proved highly intractable. Yet, it has serious implication for the development of education in our country. It has defied all known devices of dealing with human problems from all critical analysis and observation of the various forms of examination in Nigeria, one can not help but conclude that the act has almost become part of educational culture in Nigeria. The emphasis on good grades, overwhelming importance attached to certificate in Nigeria has contributed significantly to the unhealthy fraudulent examination behaviour among secondary school students.
This study report the major reasons for cheating which include pressure from parents for good grades, the value attached to certificates, low moral procedures, poor background and absence of severe punishment for cheating. This study also identify that counsellors have roles to play in coping with examination malpractice in our secondary school system. The school counsellors with effective study techniques can provide educational counselling for all students with particular attention to those with problems of effective understanding. 5. 2 CONCLUSION There cannot be doubt that the cankerworm of examinations malpractice has reached an epidemic state in our secondary school.
Govermnent and all those involved in the operations of our educational system cannot afford to waste time in finding solution to this problem. The West African Examination Council cannot pretend to be able to police over 6,000 (six thousand) secondary schools in Nigeria during the senior secondary certificate examination since the problem affect the society directly or indirectly. The central concern of any school system has to do with the academic formation of the students, that has to do with a once and for a life time experience in which they acquired, enduring standards and at the same time discovered the scope as well as the limitation of this potentials.
In this process of self discovering certain things can go wrong and students who are psychologically, intellectual, linguistically and emotionally weak, resort to all sorts of ways to express themselves and hide their weakness. 5. 3 RECOMMENDATION Based on the finding from this research the following recommendation are made: (1)Parents should realize that all children have difficulties, parents are not perfect and schools. However, child-centered cannot be ideal with every child all the time. Most children manage to deal with their problems over time and their parents love, understanding, common sense, and readiness to learn can assist the process.
2)Teaching should be professionalized: All those recruited to teach should take professional oath and get registered. Hence examination misconduct on the part of the teachers should be treated as professional misconduct thereby removing the name of the culprit from the register and he/she should be banned from practicing for life. (3) When malpractice is detected, the authority concern should have the boldness to handover the offender to law enforcement authorities who should bring them before the special tribunal on examination as established by decree No 20 of 1984. (4) Value attached to certificates should be discouraged. This will remove the stigma that students who fail their examinations are necessarily human failure. 5)Provision of adequate school infrastructures, effective teaching and learning: issues should be provided in educational institution in order to create conducive atmosphere for effective teaching and learning for students to sit for examinations with confidence and the self-assurance of passing. (6)The state government in conjunction with the federal government should train and encourage guidance counsellors to counsel in secondary school and even tertiary institution and counselling should have a specific period in school time table. (? )Finally, the counselling unit of the ministry of education should be made to supervise and ensure effective functioning of available counsellors in all schools. REFERENCES
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Nelson (Nig) Ltd. Obe, E. O (1998). An Appraisal of Continuous Assessment and National Examinations in Nigerian Schools, Inaugural lectures series Lagos: University of Lagos Press. Oluyeba, N. Y & Daramola (1993). Incidence and Detection of Examination Malpractices in Nigeria Examination Shonekan, M. O (1996). Various forms of Examination Malpractice and WAEC Penalties for them, Paper Presented at the symposium organized by the Federal Ministry of Education on “Character formation in Secondary Schools’ May 22, National Theatre Lagos. ———————– | |Frequency Percentage | | | | | | | | | |Sex | | | |Male |53 |53% | |Female |47 |47% | |Total |20 |100% | ———————– ii v 15