Major research, in this emerging field of study has taken place in the 1990s and continuing at an established speed. After the introduction of initial concepts of OCB (Bateman & Organ, 1983), numerous studies followed by relating OCB with different dimensions of organizational performance. A great majority of existing studies about the relationship between OCB and performance are theoretical rather than empirical (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). Most of these suggest that OCB is positive for organizations and benefits both management and subordinates.
Managers value OCB because it creates a work environment conducive for cooperation. It saves the amount of time a manager spends on an issue and helps in focusing on several other opportunities for improving the organizational performances (Turnipseed & Rassuli, 2005). However, empirical studies do not support a consistent relationship between OCB and performance. Jacqueline et al. (2004) conclude that OCB is like an extra-role behavior, which is not officially required by the organization; rather its practice depends solely on the consent of an employee as a consequence of the * Corresponding author.
The objective of this study is to find out the relationship between antecedents and OCB in higher education institutes of Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. More specific objectives are to find out: • • • The effect of altruism on organizational citizenship behaviour, The effect of conscientiousness on organizational citizenship behaviour and The effect of civic virtue on organizational citizenship behaviour. Based on the above objectives, the present study seeks to test the following hypothesis: H1: H2: H3: There is a direct relationship between altruism and OCB. There is a direct relationship between conscientiousness and OCB.
There is a direct relationship between civic virtue and OCB. In this paper, an analysis has been carried out to find a relationship between OCB and their antecedents in the specific context of higher education institutes of Pakistan. This paper does not include all dimensions and factors of the OCB and anteceded but limited to the following variables: • • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): OCB is defined as an extra work associated with behaviors, which goes above and beyond the routine duties prescribed by their job descriptions or measured in formal evaluations (Bateman & Organ, 1983).
Altruism: Altruism is defined as the willingness of an employee to help a coworker. It is also referred as the selflessness of an employee towards organization. According to Redman & Snape (2005), Altruism deals with going outside job requirements to help others with whom the individual has any interaction. Altruism is accounted as a one of the significant antecedents of OCB. Conscientiousness: It refers to discretionary behaviors, which goes outside the basic requirements of the job in terms of obeying work rules, attendance and job performance (Redman & Snape, 2005).
In other words, conscientiousness means the thorough adherence to organizational rules and procedures, even when no one is observing. It is considered as the mindfulness that a person never forgets to be a part of a system i. e. the organization. Conscientiousness, and openness are all better predictors of decision-making performance when adaptability is required than decision-making performance prior to unforeseen change. Civic Virtue: It refers to behaviors, which reveals a responsible concern for the image and wellbeing of the organization (Redman & Snape, 2005).
Baker (2005) explains civic virtue is responsible and productive involvement in the political processes of the organization. • • The paper is organized as follows: after introduction, which is provided in this section, literature review is carried out in section 2. Data and methodological framework are explained in section 3. Results are shown in section 4. Final section concludes the study. 2. Literature review The relationship between OCB and their antecedents has been extensively explored in the past. However, relatively few researches have examined this relationship in the specific context of higher education institutes of Pakistan.