Analgesics are most commonly found in paracetamol and ibuprofen and are used for pain such as headaches. There are three common ways in which analgesics can be administered, these are; orally for moderate pain such as headaches, intravenous which is used in hospitals when an individual goes on a drip, epidurals are used when women are in labour. Antihistamines:- antihistamines are medication which are used to relieve the symptoms of allergies. Antihistamines work by blocking the chemical release which happens when the body is allergic to something.
Antihistamines are most commonly found in Piriton which is commonly used for hay fever symptoms. Antihistamines can be taken in oral or inhalation form using a nasal spray. The oral form targets itching, runny nose and sneezing, the nasal spray works on congestion, itching and runny nose. Antacids:- Antacids are medication which are used to neutralize acid that is produced in the stomach, antacids increase the PH which reduces the acidity in the stomach, antacids are medication such as Gaviscon.
Antacids are used to relieve the symptoms of heart burn, stomach ulcers and indigestion. Antacids are taken in oral form so that they end up in the stomach and lower the amount of acid inside causing pain. Anticoagulants:- anticoagulants are medication which is used to reduce and prevent blood clotting, anticoagulants work by thinning the blood so that is does not clot and block blood vessels. The most common form are heparin and Warfrin, these are most commonly used if an individual is at high risk of having a heart ttack. Anticoagulants can be taken orally in medication such as Warfrin or by injection; the medication is released into the blood stream and begins to thin the individual’s blood. Laxatives: – Laxatives are a medication which are used to induce bowl movements or loosens an individual’s stool, laxatives work by absorbing water which increases the bulk of faeces; this therefore stimulates the bowls which moves the faeces along and out of the body.
Laxatives are most commonly used when individuals are suffering from constipation. Laxatives are given orally or in per rectum form, they enter the bowls to soften stool are retain water to relieve the symptoms of constipation. Classification of medication:- Prescription only medicine:- prescription only medicines must be prescribed to individuals by a their doctor or other qualified health care profession, the individual must the take the prescription to a pharmacist or GP surgery to collect the medicine.
Pharmacy medicine: – Pharmacy medicines can be bought from pharmacy’s without a prescription but must have the supervision of a pharmacist. The medication is kept behind the counter so individuals therefore need assistance to buy them. The pharmacist will ensure there are no reasons that you should not be taking the medicines and that they are the correct drugs for you and your health condition. General Sales List Medicines: – GSL medicines can be bought from pharmacies, supermarkets and many other retail outlets without the supervision of a pharmacist.
These are used to treat minor health complaints that individual’s feel they do not need to go see a health profession about. P2 – describe common side effects of different types of medication Headaches:- headaches maybe a side effect of taking medication such as pain killers for a long period of time, this is because you body becomes used to the painkillers and when medication is stopped there is a rebound or withdrawal effect. Rashes:- Rashes can be a side effect of taking medication if you have an allergy to the drug.
This is because the body builds up antibodies that instantly release chemicals into the body which cause red itchy rashes. Weight gain:- weight gain is most commonly caused when taking birth control drugs, this is caused by water retention and also the amount of hormone estrogens is in the drug which can cause and increased appetite. P3- explain relevant sections of key legislation associated guidelines with regard to the administration of edicines M1 – discuss organisational policies and procedures are by influenced legislation and guidelines with regard to the administration of medication D1 – evaluate the effect of legislation and guidelines on the administration of medicines The Medicines Act 1968:- The Medicines Act controls the manufacture and supply of medicines for human and veterinary use. The act defines three categories of the supply of drugs; Prescription only medicines, Pharmacy Medicine, and General sales list medicines the act controls which medicines fall into which categories.
Misuse use of drugs act 1971:- The misuse of drugs act generally covers all drugs that are illegal, with regard to the administration of medication the act covers drugs that are illegal to possess without prescription such as steroids and tranquillisers, these drugs are not illegal to possess if they have being prescribes but if not the individual may be prosecuted for possession or depending on the amount they have they may be charged with intent to supply the drug to the public.
Mental capacity act: – The Mental Capacity Act covers what procedure to follow for health and social care agencies with regard to medication management in relation to the mental capacity of an individual. In relation to prescribing the act says medication can only be prescribed to an individual without that persons consent when the person’s lack of capacity is beyond that they can understandingly agree. In regards to administration if the person does not have the mental capability to administer their own medicine, the medication should always be administered by adequately trained, competent staff member. Legal framework:-
Prescribing and dispensing medication:- before medication can be prescribed, doctors or other health care professional must first assess the individual, this is necessary before the prescription can be given. When the prescription is given individuals must take it to a pharmacist to be able to pick up the medication. The pharmacist must follow legal procedures in which they must ensure there are no reasons that you should not be taking the medicines and that they are the correct drugs for you and your health condition. They should also explain how to take the medication if this is your first time of taking them.
P4 – explain the roles and responsibilities of individuals with regard to the administration of medicines in health and social care setting M2: Compare the responsibilities and level of accountability assigned to individuals in the administration of medicines. Responsibilities and boundaries of all workers with regard to the safe handling of medicines (prescribing, dispensing, administration, storage and disposal):- Individuals involved in the process:- Prescribers (medical and non medical):- There are two types of providers, these are; independent providers and supplementary prescribers.
Independent prescribers are responsible for assessing your health and/or condition, making decisions about how to manage your health/condition and prescribing medication. Independent providers are people such as doctors, dentists, nurse independent prescribers, pharmacist independent prescribers and optometrist. Supplementary prescribers are responsible for continuing your care after the independent prescriber has assessed your health, they work with the independent prescriber and the individual to make a clinical management plan which can be followed when the independent provider is no longer present.
Supplementary prescribers are people such as nurses, midwives, pharmacist, physiotherapist and optometrist (eye care). Social care workers, the need to check that medication received matches the medication and dosage prescribed by the prescriber and is listed on the appropriate documentation:- in some cases people in care settings are unable to look after and take their own medicines meaning this job must go to the care workers.
The social care workers must make sure that all medicine is correctly identified by label, that the individual taking the medication is identified, know the need for the medication and know any special precautions that surround taking the medication. Social workers who are responsible for giving medication must follow strict procedures to ensure that the job is done safely.
Doctors – when and to whom can information about an individuals medication may be disclosed and discussed:- Doctors must stick to strict confidentiality guidelines when working with patients, doctors may only break this confidentiality in serious situations, for example if an individual is planning to cause harm to themselves or others, confidentiality is allowed to be broken to prevent such circumstances, in regards to medication doctors may discuss this in special circumstances for example, if a patient is unable to self medicate, doctors may discuss the medication when carers or family members in order for the ndividual to be given the correct medication. Doctors – the need for confidentiality:- Doctor and patient confidentiality is a key role that lets the system work successfully, patients go to their doctors as they can trust them with any information they give and doctors are under oath not to disclose this information unless the situation is necessary in which confidentiality can be breached, these are only in very serious cases though such as if a patient was in harm from themselves, of others or to others, the doctor may the breach confidentiality to prevent such circumstances from taking place.
P5: Explain safe practice in administration and storage of medicines. M3: Discuss how to ensure safe practice in the administration of medicines. D2: Evaluate the role of safe practice in the administration and storage of medicines in terms of outcomes to individuals. Obtaining consent of administration:-
Mental capacity and informed consent:- if an individual whom has a stable mental capacity, is receiving medical treatment they will be asked to give there consent for the treatment, the professional whom is treating the individual will explain the treatment they are receiving, the risks and benefits to receiving the treatment and any other information that they feel the individual needs to know, once the individual has given consent the treatment can the go ahead.
Use of independent advocate, family member, medical professional to assist in achieving informed consent:- In some situations individuals may have communication issues such as speaking a different language, consent is still needed so in these cases an interpreter will be invited to translate and achieve the informed consent.
In other circumstances the individual may have full mental capacity put is unable to sign to give their consent, in these situation they may need a family member and a medical professional to witness the consent to go ahead with the treatment Situations where informed consent is not possible:- in some situation when individuals are receiving medical treatment they may not have the mental capacity to give fully informed consents for such treatment. For example if an individual is unconscious or in a coma they are therefore unable to respond to give their consent.
Medical staff will be encouraged to try every way possible to achieve consent from the individual but in some cases this is impossible and treatment can be needed urgently, in these circumstances the next of kin would come to a formal agreement as to what is in the best interest for the individual, a step by step documentation will be put together for if and when the individual becomes conscious or aware so that they can see and understand what treatment has taken place without there knowledge.
Preparation prior to administration:- Correct equipment:-during the administration of medication correct equipments needs to be used to make sure hygiene is up to its highest possible standard. Health workers should wear gloves when administering medication, if working in care home aprons may also be necessary. Medication should also be kept in nomad or blister packs so that the correct dosages are given to the correct people at the correct time.
Equipment may also need storing, disposing or cleaning in correct ways, such as; medication should be stored in locked cupboards or fridges depending on what is necessary, equipment such as needles for injections need to be disposed of in a sharpie box and a date should be set for the sharpie box to be disposed of properly, medication such as nasal sprays, nebulisers and inhalers need to be clean correctly in order to maintain the standard of hygiene.
Correct recording documents:-in every health care environment if medication is administered it must be documented, this is a legal requirement to prevent double dosing or individuals missing medication. For example if a carer came on her shift to a client who is in a lot of pain, she may give the client a strong dose of pain killers, if she does not document this the next carer to come on the shift may do the exact same thing without realising the client has already taken a does, this can potentially be fatal, for this reason it is essential for the administration of medication to be recorded.
Administration of medicines:- Ensuring the correct medication, correct dose, correct person, correct time, correct route or correct method:- When medication is administered health care staff must ensure that the correct procedure is followed, this is done by insuring the following are correct; the medication, the dose, the individual the medication is given to, the time, the route of method the medication is given. It is critical that all the steps are followed to ensure no mistakes are made as they could be potentially fatal. Paitent hoice:-in some cases, clients have days in which they just do not want to take their medication, whether it being that they make them feel ill or they are just sick of taking them, this is the individuals own decision and this must be respected by health care workers. Service providers should try encourage individuals to take their medication and explain why they should be taken them, if this does not work the individual cannot be forced to take medication, health care workers should document the fact the client hasn’t taken the medication so that others can keep a check up this. Recording, reporting and seeking advice:-
What to record:- When medication is administered by a health care worker they should make sure the following is recorded and documented; what medication is given and the dosage given, whom the medication is given to, how it was given. This is to ensure the safety of the individual and also for such things as if the client needs to go to hospital the doctors can see a recording of what has being given. Comments and signature after each administration:-after medication has being administered to a client it is necessary that the service users sighs the records or documents to state that the client has taken them.
If medication is refused the service user need to make a comment of this, not signature is necessary as long as it is stated that the medication has being refused. If there are any adverse responses after the client has taken the medication this should also be reported so that this can be monitored in the future. Reporting and seeking advice:- if medication is refused this should first of all be recorded and then reported to a doctor or senior member of staff depending in the job role the service provider is in.
If the client has a reaction to the medication this should also be reported to a senior member of staff or doctor. If the side effects are quite server then a decision will be made as to whether to carry on the medication or not. Audit and storage of stock:- Ensuring medication is stored according to manufacturer’s instructions:- it is extremely important that medication is stored correctly, this is generally helped if medication is stored in a nomad or blister pack put sometimes this is not always the case.
If medication is stored separately then they need to be clearly labelled with the name of the medication, whom it is for, the dosage to be taken, and the date it is to be used by, this is to ensure the individuals safety when giving the medication. Medication should also be stored in a secure and clean are so that it cannot be taken by anyone whom is not the person it is labelled to and to keep hygiene standards as high as possible.
Medication also needs to be stored at different temperatures depending on what it is, for example insulin needs to be kept at a temperature below 25°C therefore in warmer times and when insulin is not needed urgently it should be stored in the fridge to keep it the correct temperature. Ensuring that the number of doses received, administered and remaining is recorded:- recording medication on its arrival to the premises is an important documentation, when medication arrives doses and amount of medication should be recorded, the recording of stock prevents and situations of stolen medication or any mistakes in dosage.
Health care staff should also keep a recording as to what is left so that if medication begins to get low a new batch can be ordered before they run out. Checking records for accuracy:- the health care worker whom in charge of medication should ensure that checks are made regularly of the recording of the administration of medication. The check will ensure that there is no mistakes being made as this could be potentially fatal to clients and that there is a persistent high standard of care taking place in the administration of medication.