Man’s loves, griefs, thoughts, dreams and aspirations coached in beautiful language is literature. •For Webster, literature is anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one’s imagination. •In PANITIKING PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that “true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy n his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator. B. Why We Need to Study Philippine Literature •We study literature so that we can better appreciate our literary heritage. We cannot appreciate something that we do not understand. Through a study of our literature, we can trace the rich heritage of ideas handed down to us from our forefathers. Then we can understand ourselves better and take pride in being a Filipino. •Like other races of the world, we need to understand that we have a great and noble tradition which can serve as the means to assimilate other cultures.
Through such a study, we will realize our literary limitations conditioned by certain historical factors and we can take steps to overcome them. •Above all, as Filipinos, who truly love and take pride in our own culture, we have to manifest our deep concern for our own literature and this we can do by studying the literature of our country. C. Time Frames of Philippine Literature in English 1. The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910 2. Period of Imitation: 1910-1925 3. Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941 4. Japanese Period: 1941-1945 5. The Rebirth of Freedom: 1946-1970 6. Period of Activism: 1970-1972 7.
Period of the New Society: 1972-1981 8. Period of the Third Republic: 1981-1985 9. Contemporary Period: 1986 D. Literature and History Literature and history are closely interrelated. In discovering the history of a race, the feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions of a people are sure to be included . . . and these feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions that are written is literature. History can also be written and this too, is literature. Events that can be written down are part of true literature. Literature, therefore, is part of history. Literature and history, however, also have differences.
Literature may be figments of the imagination or events devoid of truth that have been written down, while history is made up of events that really happened. E. The General Types of Literature PROSE – those written within the common flow of conversation in sentences and paragraphs. 1. Novel – a long narrative divided into chapters. The events are taken from true-to-life stories and a longer period of time. There are many characters involved. Example: Without Seeing the Dawn by Stevan Javellana. 2. Short Story – a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression.
Example: Dead Stars by Paz Marquez Benitez 3. Plays – presented on stage, is divided into acts having many scenes. Example: Cadaver by Alberto S. Florentino 4. Legends – fictitious narratives, usually about origins. Ex. The Bicol Legend by Pio Duran 5. Fables – also fictitious, deal with animals and inanimate objects who speak and act like people, and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. Example: The Monkey and the Turtle 6. Anecdotes – merely products of the writer’s imagination, and its main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader.
It can be stories about animals or children. Ex. The Moth and the Lamp 7. Essay – expresses the viewpoints or opinions of the writer about a particular problem or event. 8. Biography – deals with the life of a person which maybe about himself, his autobiography or that of others. 9. News – report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, and incidents, happening nationally or not. 10. Oration – formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of the audience.
Narrative Poetry – this form describes events in life either real or imaginary. a. Epic – extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control. It may deal with heroes and gods. Example: Popular – Biag ni Lam-ang Literary – Princess Urduja b. Metrical Tale – narrative written in verse classified as ballad or metrical romance. c. Ballad – of the narrative poems, considered the shortest and simplest 2. Lyric Poetry – originally refers to that kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of lyre, but now it applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. . Folksongs (Awiting Bayan) – short songs intended to be sung. Atin Cu Pung Singsing b. Sonnets – lyric poems of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea. c. Elegy – expresses feelings of grief and melancholy, and whose theme is death. d. Ode – a poem of noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or lines in a stanza. e. Psalms (Dalit) – songs praising God or the Virgin Mary, and containing a philosophy of life. f. Awit (songs) – these have measures of 12 syllables (do decasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria. Ex.
Florante at Laura by Francisco Balagtas g. Corridos – these have measures of eight syllables and recited to a martial beat. Ex. Ibong Adarna 3. Dramatic Poetry a. Comedy – this form is light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending. b. Melodrama – used in musical plays with the opera. It arouses immediate and intense emotion and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principal character. c. Tragedy – involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death and ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy. . Farce – an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines; situations are too ridiculous to be true; the characters seem to be caricatures and the motive is undignified and absurd F. ELEMENTS OF THE STORY 1. Plot – the sequence of the actions and events in the story to convey a theme. Every story has a plot that can be sketched in a summary or outline. The plot is the skeleton or the blueprint of a story. The following terms explains what happens in a plot: ? Exposition – comes at the beginning of a story.
The readers meet the character, learn about the setting, and see the beginning or the conflict or struggle. ?Rising Action (Complication) – the struggle grows stronger. ?Climax – the turning point in the story. ?Falling Action – events move toward the end of the story. ?Resolution (Denouement) – the story is brought to an end. Kinds of Plot ?Man in a Hole- oldest and most popular. ?Man on a Road ?Man in a Tub Devices in Plot ?Chronological Arrangement. It starts from beginning of events. ?Medias Res. This starts at the middle of the story. ?Flashback.
Past events are shown to justify the conflict at present. ?Foreshadowing – the author presents insignificant events or details ? Stream of consciousness – a continuous and random flow of ideas feelings, sensation, association and perceptions as they register on the protagonist’s consciousness. 2. Point of View – refers to the angle of narration or from whose viewpoint the incidents of the story are told. ?First Person Point of View – the writer narrates the story using the pronoun “I” who may be the central character or a minor figure who either observes or participates in the action. Third Person Limited Point of View – the unidentified author refers to his characters in the third person but limits himself by telling only what can be seen heard inside the world of the story. It is otherwise called “camera-eye technique” as the narrator doesn’t reveal about what the characters think or feel.
Third Person Central Point of View – the narrator refers to his characters in the third person but limits himself to narrating only what the central character thinks, feel, does, and what and whom the central character can observe. Omniscient Point of View – the narrator acts as if he knows everything that happens including the thoughts of the characters. 3. Setting – locale and period of which the events occur 4. Character – refers to the make-believe persons that are encountered in fiction. Kinds of characters: ?Protagonist – the admirable character who embodies certain human ideals. ?Antagonist – the character that provides some sort of contest or opposition for the protagonist. ?Static or flat – the characters which do not have flesh and blood qualities. Dynamic (full or round) – they live lives of sorrow and joy, sinking and swimming in the visible tides of life – very much like us. 5. Theme – the writer’s message. It may be specifically stated in the story or it may be derived from the total effects of all the elements of a story. The author may make the theme explicit by means of exposition or conclusion. 6. Symbol – a word, phrase, scene or an episode that refers directly to one thing but suggests another thing as well.