It also can resort to military force. (Encarta Microsoft student dictionary 2008) Foreign policies are the strategies governments use to guide their actions in the international arena. Foreign policies spell out the objectives state leaders have decided to pursue in a given relationship or situation. States establish various organizational structures and functional relationships to create and carry out foreign policies. Officials and agencies collect information about a situation hrough various channels; they write memoranda outlining possible options for action; they hold meetings to discuss the matter; some of them meet privately outside these meetings to decide how to steer the meetings The foreign policy role is the currency of international relations, the medium of exchange in foreign affairs. It is neither power nor state interest the long-term goals of statecraft to which a government aspires. The foreign policy role is the practical, day-to-day reality of international political discourse, which governments barter jealously guard and sometimes contest.
It involves the particular concerns and immediate ends of statecraft. As with state interest, a foreign policy role is legitimized when other actors recognize the role and declare it politically acceptable (Encyclopedia of political science). The successful of foreign policy can only be successful when it recognizes and takes into account the state own properties as well as the reality of international environment. When a foreign policy reflects a state own long-term interests mainly those that guarantee the security and well fare of its people.
When it is able to assess whether it has adequate means and resources for the realization of its goals with clear long-term trend toward strategic objectives in views it can take appropriate tactical decision even when there are not always direct steps forward, when it understand the interests of other countries with which it is brought face to face. ( a:bid ) Safeguarding sovereignty territorial integrity and political independence of the United Republic of Tanzania.
The support for the struggles against colonialism, racism and neo-colonialism the support for the oppressed people in the world. The promotion of African Unity. The promotion of the respect for the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other states. The support for the practice of the policy of non alignment. The support for the United Nations in its search for international peace and security. and the Promotion of Good Neighborliness were the key principle of Tanzania foreign policy. Tanzania foreign policy 2001) A foreign policy of a country can be influenced by internal and external environment; the following are the internal factors that influenced the making of Tanzania foreign policy up to 200 Economy. The changes in Eastern Europe have had significant impact on the pattern of flows of investment capital, as well as on the lending policies and programmes of the Briton Woods Institutions, much to the detriment of Africa. The decrease in the investment resource flows to Africa has coincided with the collapse of the commodity prices and a fall in the levels of the official development assistance to our countries.
As a result, developing countries, including Tanzania, have been deprived of the financial ability to fulfill their internal responsibilities of providing social services and funding development or to meet international obligations such as external debt repayment. The attention of governments will be attracted toward areas in which large reserves of valuable materials are located, when government have no adequate supplies of the materials within their own territories. The quantity and availability of resources within the frontiers of a state evidently is a central element of the economic influence on foreign policy making.
The influence of foreign policy drivers from the extent to which a state dependent on trade for its survival and for maintaining its standard of living and its wealth, the degree of dependence on external trade is related to and affected by the quantity and availability of domestic natural resources, the commodity composition of exports, the range of market for them, the size and trends of population, the standards of living and the expectations about it. The goals that a policy seek to achieve, this involve the security of the country welfare and preservations or promotion of values in which all states foreign policy are influenced by it.
Promotion of values requires external activity for their satisfaction which include values like nationalism, ant-colonialism and self-determination of a country for example the foreign policy during Nyerere leadership was based on the struggle against colonialism. Racism and neo- colonialism. No state has unlimited supplies of all materials and resources therefore no state that is self-sufficient in politically meaningful terms, the extent to which deficiencies are felt to exist whether of materials, food, markets, capital or technical skills foreign policy will endeavor to provide them.
Geography, political geography continues to shape certain aspects of the foreign policy process, decision-makers see the state on whose behalf they act as being of a certain size, location, topography and terrain, enjoying certain climate and possess certain natural resources. Larger size will either be an assert or liability as far as foreign policy is concerned will depend upon the use made by the inhabitants of the facilities offers. Individual decision making, every international event is the result intended or unintended of ecisions, this revolve around the question of rationality to what extent are national leaders able to make rational decision on the national interests. Both states and individual are rational and that the goals or interests of state correlate with those of leaders. Individual decisions reflect the values and beliefs on the decision makers. They have unique personalities that is to say their personal experiences, intellectual capabilities and personal style of making decision. During Nyerere leadership the foreign policy of Tanzania was more concerned with external affairs but it was revised by mwinyi and put more effort on internal affairs.
Apart from internal influences there are external factors and the following and is the external environment that influenced making of Tanzania foreign policy Global ideologies the end of the East-West confrontation and the politics of the cold war, which nourished it, have brought some of the most significant changes that have occurred in the international system. The end of the Cold War has created new opportunities and challenges to Africa the search for peace in Africa is now a continental priority.
Economic reforms and restructuring are firmly on course and so too, is the process of further democratization as more and more countries in Africa are returning to political pluralism. Nyerere’s foreign policy emphasized non alignment in the Cold War and under his leadership Tanzania enjoyed friendly relations with the People’s Republic of China, the Soviet bloc as well as the Western world. Rivalries among the two blocs forced Tanzania to support the principle of non alignment in order to keep out of the east-west tension which was not was not concerned with Tanzania at all and builds friendship with both sides.
Tanzania adopted the policy of socialism and self-reliance from eastern bloc but after its collapse the economy was liberalized as the key principle of western democracy. Policies and actions of other international bodies. Under democratic system international organizations have a direct relationship with government and apply some pressure on government’s decisions, they can function as lobbying groups. They operate like pressure groups especially when they deal with the problems of the environment or human rights applying pressure on national governments.
Under democratic system international bodies tend to be more independent and to influence state’s foreign policy. (Lewis, David. 2007) Balance of power or distribution of power also is among the factors that influence foreign policy. Players responsible for stabilizing, maintaining or the regional balance of power are not only the countries of the region, but also powers outside the region which has specific political, security and economic interests in the region or traditional and formal links with the region.
Activities of external actors either provide stability in the state or contribute to instability. Example the activities of both super power in the horn of Africa after 1975 until the fall of the regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia, the effort to maintain the balance of power or to change it are both of a long term strategic importance for the foreign policy of any country. This issue is of long-term importance also for the foreign policy of small countries like Tanzania that have only limited impact on international developments and changes in the balance of power.
The foreign policy of Tanzania was adhered to the long-term changes in the distribution of power so that it can adopt its own long-term foreign policy objectives and activities and protect the national interests particularly security and prosperity. Safeguarding sovereignty, territorial integrity and Political independence of the United Republic of Tanzania was the main principle of traditional foreign policy of Tanzania. Ernest p 2013) International regulations. All regulations that the state enter with either multilateral or bilateral relations determine the country foreign policy, they influence the conduct of the state internally and externally. The support for the United Nations in its search for international peace and security was among the principle of Tanzania traditional foreign policy adopted from United Nations.
Commitment to human equality and human rights as stipulated in the United Nations universal declaration of human rights form the basis of Tanzania against apartheid was the determinant of Tanzania’s foreign policy. Also the foreign policy of Tanzania was based on African unity, peace and complete freedom as it was among the objectives of organization o f African union and the east African community. Internalization of virtually all aspects of social life is one of the fundamental features of the age of globalization which has caused the globalization of foreign policy.
The foreign policy of Tanzania was revised so as fit the international environment challenges like economic crisis, decreasing role of the United Nations and liberalization of economy and politics. Also the new foreign policy of united republic of Tanzania revised from the traditional policy cannot manage the international environment effectively due to the changes that occur around the global. The policy put much emphasis on economic dependence rather than building self sustaining economy REFERENCES
Ernest p (2013) foreign policy; from conception to diplomatic practice. Martinus nyhoff. Jervis, Robert. (1976) Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton, Lewis, David. (2007). The Management of Non-governmental Development Organizations. 2nd Edition. Routledge Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Co-operations. (2001) The New Foreign Policy of the United Republic of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam Susarla, D, Exploring Foreign Policy, University of California, Irvine ——————————————- [ 2 ]. A country’s foreign policy can be influenced by many variables, including its historical alliances with other nations, its culture, and type of government, size, geographic location, economic ties, and military power. A country’s foreign policy is usually aimed at preserving or promoting its economic and political interests abroad and its position in the world [ 3 ]. Jervis, Robert. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton, 1976