Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 1. India is so lively and refreshing. From here, the West looks somewhat old, gray and struggling. Indeed, India looks all set to regain the centrestage it occupied a few centuries ago.But while it is developing very fast and its elite is striving to match up with the West, is it not, at the same time, putting at stake much of its precious environment, culture, traditions and values? Of course, the great country has abscribed influences of many previous invaders and colonizers without losing its identity. But presently, its “westernization” seems to be taking place at a frightening speed. Foreign trade delegations are rushing into the country even during the hottest months of the year.
Starry-eyed businessmen, dressed in crisp black suits are hopping from one five-star hotel to another, cracking mega deals.Market scales and huge figures make them drool. They all want their chunk of the great Indian curry. However, the West is not always exporting its very best to India. Because it’s not just higher standards of safety or environmental friendliness, or valuable technologies and know-how that are flowing from the western world. 151 XII – English 2. AK 3.
Fast food, tobacco, alcohol and toxic skin-whitening creams are pouring into India. This wave is promoting a western lifestyle based on consumerism, individualism and meaninglessness. And the pace of consumption is indeed picking up in India.Manufacturers of goods as different as cars, clothes or cellphones have noticed that in recent years the life cycle of products has shortened. While the older generation of Indians would buy a new product only when the previous one’s useful life had ended, the young generation tends to fall for novelty. People want the latest generation of gadgets because they have more money and more access to such goods. But mostly, they are made to believe, by ever increasing and omnipresent publicity, that they will feel happier with the new product.
To encourage this shopping frenzy, a quiet revolution is taking place in the form of rapidly increasing credit penetration. For historical and cultural reasons, well-to-do Indians traditionally avoided indebting themselves. This may be one less talked about reasons why the country’s economy avoided major trouble during the recent crisis. Only 20 million Indians possess a credit card and personal loans represent about 10% of GDP. Whilst in most western economies, the latter account for approximately 100% of it. But all this is about to change with a booming credit industry.These trends may be healthy ingredients for thriving capitalism.
But they may not prove soothing for the soul. Even if they all possess their own television, car, washing machine and fridge, Westerners are not necessarily a happier lot. Surveys show that their happiness has declined in correlation with the development of consumerism since World War II. Moreover, most people in the so-called developed nations suffer from obesity, loneliness depression and addiction to prescribed drugs. May be once upon a time they danced, sang songs and told stories, but now, free time often means watching TV or shopping.To meet the growing demand, natural resources are now being exploited in India, displacing millions of tribal people towards urban slums fuelling growing pockets of civil war-like conflicts across the country. Efforts may be made to fight the old caste system, but a social stratification based on consumption power is emerging.
Along with this, India’s comparatively good criminality track record is bound to go on the rise in the coming years. From environmental perspective, the current scenario is down-right 152 XII – English 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. AK terrifying.
Mountains are being blown up, forest are being shaved, soil and sacred rivers are being polluted to cater to the endless production of goods that are meant to be replaced as fast as possible. And whilst the West exports its toxic junk to places like India, where it is “recycled” in dangerous conditions by the informal sector, for peanuts, where will the Indians’ rapidly growing waste be dumped? 9. Maybe 50 years ago, the effects of massive consumption were largely ignored. But today, most people acknowledge many planets would be required if everyone picked up American consumer habits. 0. Even the western toilets have become a status symbol in Indian middleclass homes. Millions of fancy flush toilets are added every year to new trendy restaurants, malls, condominiums and five-star hotels in Indian cities.
Instead of adopting unsustainable imports from the West, there are areas wherein India should inspire the latter. With its traditional squatting toilet for instance. Not just because it is cheaper, more hygienic and better adapted to the human anatomy, but mostly, in a context where clean water is increasingly rare and pricy, because it requires much less of it.Countless other sustainable concepts, values and products from India could benefit Westerners. Strong extended family ties, respect for elders, kriya yoga and tongue-scrapers are just a few of them. 11. India needs to avoid repeating the West’s mistakes.
Only enlightened citizens can show the way towards a more viable economy but putting pressure on government, stressing India’s success should not be measured by GDP growth rates and spending habits alone. Nor should it aspire to become like the US or China. 2. Concerned and responsible Indian citizens can encourage sensible consumption behaviour – by shopping less and wasting even lesser. By buying local products to keep the cottage industries, bazaar culture, traditional crafts and wisdom alive. In essence, by valuing their rich heritage and living simple and meaningful lives, Indians can set an example, and show the West that Mother India is much more than a well of business opportunities. It’s not just a matter of common sense; it’s about our survival.
A. a) What cost have we to pay for westernization? 2 (b) How do the salesmen try to tempt buyers for buying cell phones? 2 (c) How do the old and young consumers differ in buying goods? 153 2 XII – English AK (d) What are the threats faced by the developed countries due to consumerism? 1 (e) How can Indians inspire western countries through their traditions and life styles? 2 B. Find out the words from the passage which mean the same as follows : (a) attackers (para – 1) (b) one who is present everywhere (para – 4) (c) frightening (para – 8) 2. 1 1 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follows: India’s economy is doing well and we are right to celebrate that. But what we do not like to acknowledge, let alone address, is another fact; our economy, and society, is still extremely biased against women. Perhaps paying attention to such inconvenient truths would distract us as we march towards superpower status. In the latest gender gap index report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF), India keeps company with the worst in the world.
Among the 128 countries that have been evaluated by the WEF, India is ranked 114, followed among others by Yemen, Chad, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, Even China, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Botswana fare much better than us. The survey considers the proportion of resources and opportunities made available to women on educational, economic, political and health. Parities it is only in the realm of political empowerment that we seem to have done somewhat OK, ranking 21st. That’s also thanks to a long spell of prime ministership by Indira Gandhi.It begs the question why women are so badly off in our country if they are politically empowered. To begin with, we are still largely a feudal and patriarchal society. In many parts of our country–especially in UP, Bihar, Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab– women are often treated as if they were a piece of property.
In these parts, the sex ratio is most skewed because families often snuff out the lives of girl children before, or immediately after, they are born, in many parts of India women are viewed as an economic liability despite contributing in several ways to our society and economy.The state has not covered itself with glory either in bridging the gender divide. Its policies and projects for women are woefully inadequate. For instance, the literacy rate for females is a mere 48 per cent against 73 per cent for males. Unless we put more of our girl children in schools and equip them with quality education–as opposed to making them merely literate–we can forget about 154 XII – English AK sustainable progress. Public health is another area of failure. Hundreds of women in rural India die every year during childbirth for want of medical attention.
There are thousands more who do not even have access to a primary health centre. Importantly, reforming property laws more rigorously so that gender parity becomes a reality must rank among the government’s priorities. While these changes are necessary, they will amount to nothing if we, as a society, continue to deny our women the dignity, liberty and opportunities that are rightfully theirs. No society will ever prosper as a whole as long as half of it is constantly created as somehow less than the other half. a) On the basis of reading the passage make notes on the passage using headings and sub-headings using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Give a suitable title to the passage. 5 (b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words using the notes.
3 3. You have lost your wrist watch in the school play ground while playing cricket. Write a notice in about 50 words for the ‘Lost and Found’ NoticeBoard of the school giving details of the watch, contact address and reward. You are Anuj/Anuja of Class XI, Vanasthali Public School, Delhi. OR You want to let out the first floor of your newly constructed house with all modern facilities. Write an advertisement to be published under the classified column of a local daily in 50 words. 4.
You are Gaytri/Ganesh a resident of Madhuban Chowk, Delhi. The Residents Welfare Association of your locality organised a medical camp for free check-up of women. It was organised in collaboration with Safdarjang Hospital. Women came from getting themselves checked up in large number. Write a report in about 125 words for publication in hospital’s journal. 0 OR You are Disha/Daksh a resident of C-5, Kalyanpuri. You had been travelling in a low floor DTC bus when a speeding truck from opposite side collided with the bus.
You escaped with minor bruises but many passengers were severely injured. Write a report on it in about 125 words. 5. You are Simran/Sandeep, head of school Examination Committee of JPL school, Motibagh. You had placed an order for supply of some articles with ASN stationers, Karolbagh. The articles were not supplied on time so you had to arrange for them from other sources.Write a letter to the dealer for cancellation of the order.
10 155 XII – English AK OR You are Ankur/Ankita a resident of C-7, Bhajanpura, Delhi. You read an advertisement given by Sports Authority of India for the recruitment of refrees for junior girls and junior boys hockey tournaments. Write a letter to the Chairman of the Department applying for the job giving your complete biodata. 6. You are Sukhmani/Sukhpal from Laxmi Nagar, Delhi. You are appalled to read the survey reports of UNICEF which have rated India below many Africans countries in providing Health Care Facilities to its people.You feel that neglecting health care is going to have a very bad impact on India’s prospects in future.
Write an article in about 200 words expressing your views. 10 OR You are Riddhima/Ritik from Nai Sarak, Delhi. You observe lots of developmental works are being carried out in and around Delhi. You strongly feel that there is urgent need to change in the mindset of people so that they feel proud and responsible for such changes. Write an article in about 15-200 words expressing your views. Section C : Text Book 7. (a) Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow: 1 ? = 4 A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases, it will never pass into nothingness, but will keep A bower quite for us, and a sleep full of sweet dreams, and health and quite breathing.
Questions (a) Why is a beautiful thing a joy forever? (b) Why does it never pass into nothingness? 1 1 (c) How does beauty help in our sound physical and mental health? 1 156 XII – English AK (d) Explain : ‘A bower quite for us? OR I looked again at her wan, Pale as a late winter’s moon and felt that old familiar ache, my childhoods fear but all I said was, see you soon Amma All I did was smile and smile and smile.Questions (a) Who do ‘I’ and ‘her’ refer to? (b) What is poet’s ‘childhood fear’? (c) Explain the comparison – “as a late winter’s moon”. 1 1 1 1 (d) How were the parting words and smile of poet in contrast to her real feelings? 1 (b) Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each. (i) (ii) 2 ? 3 = 6 According to Stephen Spender, who can change the life of slum children and how? Why does Aunt Jennifer find it difficult to pull the needle? (iii) What does the writer want to clear about total inactivity and death? (Keeping Quiet). 8.Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each : 2 ? 5 = 10 (i) (ii) How does M. Hamel praise the French language.
Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25% refund to the farmers? (iii) How was hierarchy maintained in the make up department? (iv) How is Umberto Eco’s style of writing different from that of the conventional style? (v) How are Sophie and Geoff a contrast to each other despite being siblings? 157 XII – English AK 9. Answer the following question in 125-150 words. 10 How did the instructor help the author to become a swimmer and overcome his fear of water?OR The beauty of the bangles of Firozabad is in direct contrast to life of the people who make them. Elaborate. 10. How does Mr. Lamb infuse Derry with a zest for living? OR Bring out the element of humour and irony in the story ‘The Tiger King.
’ 11. Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each : (i) (ii) What is a first-day cover? (The Third Level). Why is the involvement of students crucial in ‘Students on Ice’ Programme? 8 7 (iii) How did the Wizard solve as well as create problems for Roger? (iv) Why was Zitkala sa against the cutting of her hair? 158 XII – English AK