As David Weeks puts it, “conflict is an inevitable outcome of human diversity and a world without conflict is not desirable, because it would mean a world without diversity. ” Mean of conflict It as an activity which takes place when conscious beings wish to carry out mutually inconsistent acts concerning their wants, needs or obligations. Conflict is an escalation of a disagreement, which is its common prerequisite, and is characterized by the existence of conflict behaviour, in which the beings are actively trying to damage one another. Character of a conflict is largely shaped by the causes of the incompatibility.
The character is often linked to another and many of the ongoing conflicts. Causes for the conflicts between states can be grouped as: 1- Political:- i. Incompatibility over political system ii. Desire of succession iii. Desire of autonomy iv. Power relation 2- Socio-culture:- incompatibility over ethnic religion or ideological conception 3- Economic:- incompatibility over distribution of resources 4- Territorial:- incompatibility over boundaries, regional dominance or autonomy We are mainly concern about territorial conflicts which are the part of political geography.
On this we will only discuss about nature of boundaries related conflicts between states in all over the world. Types of conflicts There are mainly four types of conflicts which take place in different parts of world. It can be between two or more states and also within the states. Its intensity is differing among these fragile states, its intensity is depend upon the current socio-economic-political situation of the states. 1- Intra-state conflict 2- Inter-state conflict 3- Non-state conflict 4- Extra-state conflict Five Beliefs that Propel Groups or States towards Conflict
Roy Eidelson and Judy Eidelson (2003) investigated some of the important roles that beliefs may play in triggering or constraining conflict between groups. On the basis of a review of relevant literature, five belief domains stand out as especially noteworthy: Superiority, injustice, vulnerability, distrust and helplessness. 1. Superiority Individual-level core belief: This core belief revolves around a person’s enduring conviction that he or she is better than other people in important ways. The cluster of attitudes commonly associated with this belief includes a sense of specialness, deserving ness, and entitlement.
Group-level worldview: Many of these elements are also present in the superiority worldview at the group level. This worldview encompasses shared convictions of moral superiority, chosenness, entitlement and special destiny. Several joint working committees of the American Psychological Association have identified “belief in the superiority of one group’s cultural heritage (history, values, language, traditions, arts and crafts, etc. ) over another’s as a defining characteristic of the phenomenon they termed ethnocentric monoculturalism. 2. Injustice
Individual-level core belief: The perceived mistreatment by specific others or by the world at large. This mindset can lead the individual to identify something as unfair which is merely unfortunate, and thereby to inappropriately engage in retaliatory acts. Group-level worldview: The injustice worldview reflects the in-groups conviction that it has significant and legitimate grievances against another group. This mindset can mobilize powerful and violent collective insurgencies, especially because shared perceptions of injustice typically heighten the identification and allegiance that individuals feel towards their group.
Further, these assessments of mistreatment are particularly common across cultural divides because different cultures tend to have different definitions for what constitutes justice, and different norms for how it should be achieved. 3. Vulnerability Individual-level core belief: The vulnerability core belief revolves around a person’s conviction that he or she s perpetually living in harm’s way. Vulnerability involves a person’s perception of him or herself as subject to internal or external dangers over which control is lacking, or is insufficient to afford him or her a sense of safety.
Group-level worldview: Important parallels to this individual-level core belief are present in a collective vulnerability worldview that again appears to be widespread among ethnic groups. Fears about the future are the most common cause of ethnic conflicts and often produce spiralling violence. The vulnerability worldview is catastrophic thinking in which a group’s imagined worst case scenarios take on the inexorable logic of inevitability. 4. Distrust Individual-level core belief: This core belief focuses on the presumed hostility and malign intent of others.
The critical role played by issues of trust in individual psychological development has long been recognized. The expectation that others will hurt, abuse, humiliate, cheat, lie, or take advantage usually involves the perception that harm is intentional or the result of unjustified and extreme negligence. People who consistently assume the worst about the intentions of others prevent truly collaborative relationships from developing. Group-level worldview: As an extension of this individual-level core belief to larger groups. the distrust worldview focuses specifically on perceptions of out groups and revolves around beliefs that the other is untrustworthy and harbours malign intentions toward the in-group. 5. Helplessness Individual-level core belief: The conviction that even carefully planned and executed actions will fail to produce desired outcomes. In some cases, the individual may perceive him or herself as lacking the ability necessary to attain a goal. Regardless of the extent to which helplessness is a matter of distorted perception or objective reality, this core belief tends to be self-perpetuating because it diminishes motivation.
Group-level worldview: The helplessness worldview describes a collective mindset of powerlessness and dependency. The extent to which a group perceives itself as helpless reflects assessments not only of its capabilities, but also of whether the environment is rich or poor in opportunities for group advancement. Territorial conflicts are main causes of disputes between states which leads to a situation like war with each other. And territorial conflicts occur mainly due to the boundary disputes’ between states.
In the world, boundary disputes is a one of the main cause for the conflicts between states so we emphasise mainly boundary disputes between states . to understand the boundary dispute , first of all we need to familiar with its main term boundary which is main fragile factor for conflicts. Boundary A boundary is a real or imaginary line that separates two things. In geography, boundaries separate different regions of the Earth. OR Vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above the surface. Physical Boundaries The most obvious type of boundary is a physical boundary.
A physical boundary is a naturally occurring barrier between two areas. Rivers, mountain ranges, oceans, and deserts can all serve as physical boundaries. Many times, political boundaries between countries or states form along physical boundaries. For example, the boundary between France and Spain follows the peaks of the Pyrenees Mountains, while the Alps separate France from Italy. The Strait of Gibraltar is the boundary between south-western Europe and north-western Africa. This narrow waterway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea is an important political, economic, and social boundary between the continents.
Rivers are common boundaries between nations, states, and smaller political units such as counties. The Rio Grande forms a large part of the boundary between Mexico and the United States. Political Boundaries Political boundaries are the dividing lines between countries, states, provinces, counties, and cities. These lines, more often called borders, are created by people to separate areas governed by different groups Sometimes, political boundaries follow physical boundaries. Political boundaries change over time through wars, treaties, and trade.
After World War II, the map of Europe was almost completely redrawn. Germany’s eastern border was moved farther west, and the country itself was later divided into East and West Germany. In 1803, the United States bought 2,147,000 square kilometres (828,800 square miles) of land in a treaty with France. This land, the Louisiana Purchase, expanded the size of the U. S. to include the areas that are now Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Minnesota, North and South Dakota, New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Louisiana. The western boundary of the U.S. moved from the Mississippi River to what is now Yellowstone National Park. Other Boundaries Political boundaries are just one type of artificial, or man-made, boundary. Other boundaries created by people includelinguistic, economic, and social boundaries Linguistic boundaries form between areas where people speak different languages. Often, these boundaries match political boundaries. For example, the predominant language in France is French, and the predominant language in Germany is German. Economic boundaries divide people with different incomes or levels of wealth.
Sometimes these boundaries fall on national borders. The border between the developed country of the United States and the underdeveloped country of Mexico is an economic boundary as well as a political one. Natural resources also play a role in economic boundaries. Social boundaries occur where social differences lead to unequal access to resources and opportunities. Some of these boundary issues include race, gender, religion, and physical abilities. In some places, women may not have access to certain jobs or be allowed to travel in certain areas.
In Saudi Arabia, for instance, all women must have a male guardian. This guardian’s approval is required for women to travel, seek health care, manage personal finances, marry, or divorce. This social boundary discourages many women from seeking leadership positions in business or government. Social boundaries can also form along religious lines. The nation of Sudan has many distinct religious social boundaries. Northern Sudan is mostly Muslim, southwestern Sudan is mostly Christian, and southeastern Sudan has more followers of animism than the other two regions.
Sudan suffered more than 20 years of civil war, and South Sudan voted to secede from Sudan as a separate nation in 2011. Boundary Dispute:- When two countries disagree about the border that separates them. There are the four types of boundary dispute 1. Definitional disputes (positional disputes) Countries disagree over the legal language of the boundary in the treaty. One country will sue another in World Court. 2. Locational disputes arguments arise when definition of boundary isn’t questioned, but interpretation of the boarder is. usually a physical boarder has shifted -e. g. a river 3.
Allocational disputes (resource disputes)arguments arise when definition of boundary isn’t questioned, but the use of it is. Disagreement over who should have access Resources Usually in the ocean or underground. 4. Operational disputes (functional disputes) Arguments arise over how the boarder should be administered e. g. disagreements over immigration and trade. Major reason for boundary dispute This is a main question about the conflicts between statesthat is important to our world today. For example, Israel and Palestine are fighting over land right now and this conflict can be disastrous to many.
China is also disputing Japan and the Philippines over two islands as well. So, this question is very alive and well today. With that said, there are many reasons why nations dispute over land. Perhaps the greatest reason why nations dispute land is due to natural resources. What makes land very valuable is what is on or under the land. For example, is there is gas, gold, oil, or any number of other commodities, then that land is very desirable. This is the case with China, Japan and the Philippines. There are debating the deposit of natural gases in the disputed area.
Another reason of dispute is access to water, which make the land more fertile. In short, there is usually something about the land that both nations want. Another possible cause is the lack of clear borders. This is what the problem is in the South China Sea and it is also why there is conflict to some extent as the ice melts in the Arctic. The Palestinians and Israelis are not fighting over resources but over the land itself. Sometimes, land is a surrogate for a desire on each side to have power. Often boundary disputes result from differences between distinct cultures, ethnic groups, or political systems.
For instance, the mainland Chinese claim that both Tibet and Taiwan are part of China, whereas both India and Pakistan lay claim to Kashmir. Boundary disputes resulting from religious differences include the one just mentioned (between India and Pakistan), as well as various disputes in the mideast. Boundary disputes resulting from ethnic differences are also important, such as those between the Turks and the Kurds. Top ten boundary disputes are describe as fallow:- · Iran-Iraq-Turkey: the Kurdish homeland issue · China-Japan-Taiwan: the sovereignty dispute over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands and related maritime boundaries
· Japan-Russia: the Kuril Islands/Northern Territories sovereignty dispute · India-Pakistan: their dispute over Jammu and Kashmir · Iran-United Arab Emirates: the dispute over Abu Musa and the Tunb islands · China-South Korea: their unresolved maritime boundary · The Spratly Islands, disputed among China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Brunei also claims maritime jurisdiction there. · Japan-South Korea: the sovereignty dispute over Liancourt Rocks (Tokdo/Takeshima) and the related maritime boundary issues · Armenia-Azerbaijan: the issue of Nagorno-Karabakh
The world is divided in countless ways, by seas, cultures, languages, religions and wealth. But the most contentious divide is that of the political borders. They can be traced back to the early Egyptian Dynasties and have shaped the history that we know today. As a result of their long history, borders are ever changing and continually disputed. Some disputes end up being peacefully solved, some end in war, and some continue to this day. Abkhazia and South Ossetia Claims: Georgia vs. Republic of Abkhazia and Republic of South Ossetia Both Abkhazia and South Ossetia are breakaway republics from Georgia in the Caucasus.
The two little known territories have battled for independence from Georgia since the 1920s, but are still unsuccessful in their claims. As a result of the Russian Revolution in 1917, under the Soviet Union, Abkhazia and South Ossetia became part of Georgia as two autonomous republics. However, Abkhazia and South Ossetia declared independence from Soviet Georgia in 1923 and 1922 respectively, after wars in the 1920s. Further troubles started in the early 90s, during the demise of the Soviet Union, when Georgia declared independence from the USSR, and adopted its old constitution.
Many believed the old constitution would eliminate the autonomy of the regions, but in fact it didn’t. The troubles eventually led to wars in 1992 and 2008. After the 2008 war, Russia officially recognized the countries as two, separate and individual states, and along with Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru and Vanuatu is one of the only countries to officially recognize the states. The UN, EU and NATO, however, refuse to recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia as sovereign states. Kosovo Claims: Republic of Serbia vs. Republic of Kosovo
Here we have another, more famous dispute, regarding land that once belonged to a socialist republic. This time however, it involves the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia has a long and interesting history, but we will be concentrating on the decline of the socialist state in the 1990s. During the demise, 5 new states were formed: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia and FR Yugoslavia. FR Yugoslavia also contained the autonomous region of Kosovo. War broke out in 1998-99 when the “Kosovo Liberation Army” fought for independence against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The UN was very much on the side of the KLA, and helped with the bombing of FR Yugoslavia. After the war, FR Yugoslavia relinquished all claims to Kosovo and accepted it as a UN controlled region. FR Yugoslavia then split into two individual states, Serbia and Montenegro, in 2006. Kosovo then declared independence from Serbia, on 17th February, 2008, with its capital city as Pristina. It is officially recognized by 80 UN member states, plus Taiwan. It is a member of the IMF and World Bank Group; however it is still, technically, a partially recognized state.