Magna Carta (1215): feudal system (all tenants of lands held estates from the king, superior lord). Magna Carta is a document accepted by King John that established the rights through a series of law of English barons. It’s the base of individual rights and states that there’s two heads: the pope and the king. Feudal laws existed during Norman Conquest. * 1215: Magna Carta (The Great Charter) sealed by King John (he lost Normandy and Poitou because of wars and was under pressure of his barons). Barons complained about taxation and the justice system. The charter is a list of concessions; courts are to be separated from religion. 1st stage on the road to a parliamentary government. * The king has little to say about politics. II. MIDDLE AGES AND THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR (14th-15th CENTURY)
Town and countries: agriculture was more effective, there were a lot of people in the cities and life was hard and short. London was the biggest town of Britain. The population grew a lot * 1150: beginning of cash economy Great European famine and plague: 14th century (climate is cold, poor harvests so the food is expensive), 1348 (Black Death, a disease that killed half of the London population). 14th century: population was hungry, there were social protests. * 1348: the Black Death touched all Europe, it was a horrible disease (skin would turn black…) The hundred years’ war (1337-1453): the English king wanted to rule over France so France made an alliance with the Scottish. It was a series of conflicts and there were long moments of peace. Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1153, the main goal was to conquer England so Louis VII attacked Normandy. In 1259, the Treaty of Paris was signed; lands were divided and given to Louis IX and Henry III.
During 1337-1360, France lost control of the Channel and Calais. * 1360: Treaty of Bretigny-Calais (peace treaty). * 1420: Treaty of Troyes (England ruled France and Henry V inherit the crown) * 1429: Joan of Arc led the future Charles V to be crowned, she was captured and burnt. * It was a series of conflicts and not a continuous war. It lasted 116 years with long period of pieces. The two sides had the upper hand at different times. * It was a war between England and France because of the Norman invasion, France rules England and the British king owned lands in France. 1153: conquest of England is France’s main goal (the king is old and in a tough political position). * 1259: Treaty of Paris between Louis IX and Henry III who lost much of his kingdom to France. * 1337-1360: French disasters, losing control of the Channel where French fleets were destroyed), they lost Calais. * Peace was declared in 1360 with the Treaty of Bretigny-Calais. * 1369-1420: reverses for the English * 1381: Richard II faced an English peasant’s revolt (taxes raised to pay the cost of French wars) * 1407: French royal family is divided into two camps, the Armagnacs and the Burgundians.
Their feud plunged France into a civil war. * 1415: England took advantage of the French division and invaded Normandy? Henry IV won the battle. * 1420: Treaty of Troyes, the two sides agreed that England would rule over northern France and Henry IV would inherit the crown of France. * 1429: Joan of Arc began her quest to unite France with the future Charles VII. She relieved the siege of Orleans and led the Dauphin to be crowned at Reims. She was captured by the Burgundians and handed over to England where she was burnt alive. 1453: England lost its land in France except for Calais. Parliament: 13th century held regularly consultative and advisory councils. In 1330’s there were two chambers (the knights/burgesses and the clergy/lords) and in 1376: the Good Parliament. * Meetings were held, the king consulted with principal officers and ecclesiastical tenant in chief.
They came to include commoners. Edward III was criticized by the people because he spent a lot of money. Consequences of war: rise of the parliament, Francophobia and English patriotism. 1381: peasants revolted (main cause: the poll tax of 1379), national sentiment (patriotism and Francophobia). The war of roses (1415-1487): civil war opposites the House of York and the House of Lancaster. Caused by the murder of Richard III -> Usurpation crown by future Henry VIII. End of middle ages: Henry Tudor defeated Richard III and became Henry VIII. * It came to an end when Richard III was killed during the battle of Bosworth in 1484 * Rise of English literacy and of the English language.
Break from Rome. It was a time of political, religious and economic problems. Reformation of the Catholic Church. The Pope, essential actor in the politic life, can excommunicate. The church has the power. Henry VIII declared himself head of the church. He had 8 wives. He had no heirs from Catherine of Aragon so he divorced without the Pope’s consent. In 1534: Act of Supremacy (becomes head of the church) and in 1536: he denied the Pope and his authority. He died in 1547. His daughter, Mary Tudor, wanted to bring back the Catholic Church.
However it’s Elizabeth I, his second daughter, who ascended the throne in 1558. The following year, in 1559: The Second Act of Supremacy. Mary Stuart, cousin and rival of Elizabeth I, queen of the Scots plotted against her cousin but was executed. Elizabeth I never married, she had no children and died in 1603. * 16th century: religious reformation (of the Catholic Church, impact on the economy and social life). Europe: the pope is an essential actor in Europe’s political life, he’s the leader of the Catholic Church, he has more power than the monarchs.
Britain: people think the church has too much power and is too rich. * Early 16th century: the pope decided to build the St Peter’s Basilica in Rome which was to be the greatest church in the world and it cost a lot of money. People were shocked like Martin Luther who wanted to reform the Catholic Church. He was excommunicated in 1580. * Henry VIII came to declare himself head of the church. * Divorced from Catherine of Aragon (no male heir) without the pope’s consent to marry Anne Boleyn (no male heir). She was believed to have cheated on the king and was sentenced to death.
He then married Jane Seymour (who gave him a son, Edward VI). * 1534: Act of Supremacy, the king is the supreme head of the church. * 1536: Act Extinguishing the authority of bishops of Rome, it denies the pope’s authority and gives the king control of the church. Act of dissolution of the lesser monasteries, closed monasteries because the king needed money for wars. * Marie Tudor: Henry VIII’s only son died, his eldest daughter became queen, she was catholic and wanted to bring the Catholic Church. Millions of Protestants were killed. She was nicknamed “Bloody Mary”. 1558: Elizabeth I, Anne Boleyn’s daughter, went on with her father’s work and ascended the throne. * 1559: 2nd Act of Supremacy, the queen became “supreme governor”, she wanted political power and Protestantism to be well established. Act of Uniformity: Puritans thought reformation didn’t go far enough; they appeared during Elizabeth I’s reign and became a movement in 1572. Puritans wanted a more decentralized system without Bishops. They were called Presbyterians. 1640: Puritans left the Church of England and became dissenters. * Elizabeth I was called the Virgin Queen. She died in 1603.