In fact, 30% of adult obesity begins in childhood. Obesity accounts for more than 300,000 deaths a year and the annual cost to society for obesity is estimated at nearly $100 billion. Body composition is a term used to describe the different body compartments (lean mass, fat mass, body water and bone mass) that make up a person’s body weight. It is important when studying obesity to be able to measure body composition. Overall body fat is an important indicator of weight related disease such as diabetes and the location of this tissue, is equally, if not more significant.
For example, the amount of fat around the abdominal organs, known as visceral fat, is associated with metabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance and high blood pressure and it may be a useful measure for predicting health. It is estimated that the average person gains at least on pound of fat and loses one-half pound of muscle each year beginning at age twenty unless he or she makes a lifestyle change. Excess body fat places you at high risk for heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respitory problems and certain cancers, especially of the breast and endometrium (uterus).
Obesity is expensive too. The National Institutes of Health estimates that obesity related disease cost the nation approximately $100 billion each year. Certain developments in U. S. culture and society in recent decades that have influenced this obesigenic trend include: * Community designs centered on the automobile. This has discouraged walking and bicycling, made it more difficult for children to get together and play, and has increased the time adults spend driving. * Increased concerns about safety that limit the time and areas children are allowed to play outside.
Additionally, more children spend long hours in front of the television or computer screen, instead of spending time actively playing (Crespo, et. al. 2001). * Reduced amount of time students spend in physical education classes. The actual time spent in activity may be too short to be of sufficient benefit and students may be required to take fewer gym classes overall. * High calorie foods and beverages which are easily available, cheap and tasty. In many low income communities there are no grocery stores, leaving people to rely on the higher calorie, less nutritious choices from convenience stores and fast food restaurants (Moorland, et. l. , 2002). These pervasive contributes to the obesigenic environment are projected to continue to negatively influence health in the absence of swift and decisive measures to counter them. Some health problems associated with anorexia nervosa are the obvious such as malnutrition, which is caused by under eating, can lead to deficiency in energy and nutrients. Malnutrition can also cause blindness, kidney failure, heart attack and death. Dehydration is also common in anorexia nervosa and often causes seizures in the sufferer.
People who have anorexia may get soft thin hair covering their body, this is a defense to try and keep the body warm as it loses fat and body temperature drops. Lastly, anorexics are at severe risk of death from heart failure, heart attacks, stroke, organ failure and suicide. Some health problems associated with bulimia nervosa include lazy bowel from laxative abuse, dehydration from laxative abuse an d purging, deterioration of teeth enamel (from stomach acid while purging), and wearing down of the esophagus ( stomach acid while purging).
People who have health problems associated with binge-eating include indigestion and/or bowel problems, weight gain, which might lead to higher cholesterol/diabetes and malnutrition, if you tend to binge solely on fatty or sugary foods. From a physiological standpoint, with either disease, the required nutrients for bodily processes are not getting to where they’re needed, so a lot of deficiency diseases will occur due to a lack of protein, potassium and vitamins.
The teeth and bones may suffer through starvation, which is vital for all bodily chemical reactions. Regarding bulimia nervosa, the repeated vomiting brings concentrated acid into the mouth far too regularly-and it shows in the erosion of the teeth. Tiredness and dizziness are also caused by lack of energy, due to lack of food, and a lot of stress is put on the body, which shows in the paper like skin and lank hair. The head will also look enlarged in comparison with the body, as it can’t change size.
A hormone, such as estrogen, also becomes unbalanced and female sufferers may cease to have periods. Lack of B vitamins will also cause mood imbalances which do not help the psychological aspect of the disease. It all stems down to the fact that the body is not receiving the nutrients it needs. References www. aboutourkids. com www. halfmedical. com www. mrc. epid. cam. com www. nmhealth. com www. sharecare. com www. yahoo. com