Planning guidelines identify key elements that should be taken into consideration in the provision of infrastructure for boarding facilities. They are: Classification and capacity of boarding facilities: Prototypes Classification ranges from primary, secondary and any combination that have an impact on the provision of facilities and the determination of guidelines/requirements. In addressing these for the purpose of equitable provisioning, boarding facilities will be classified as primary and secondary school boarding facilities.
This is consistent with the classification of schools as described in the Guidelines for Planning for Public School Infrastructure. A primary school boarding facility will accommodate learners from Grade R to 7, from a minimum of 60 to a maximum of 100 learners. Secondary school boarding facility will accommodate learners from Grades 8 to 12, from a minimum of 60 to a maximum of 300 learners. Average space per learner in a bedroom/dormitory refers to square meters that each learner will occupy in a bedroom or dormitory. The space per learner in a bedroom will range from a minimum of 3. 5m2 to a maximum of 6m2.
Size of the site of a boarding facility: The minimum site size will be four hectares for secondary schools’ boarding facilities, excluding sporting fields. Location of the site of a boarding facility: Where possible, boarding facilities should be located adjacent to the schools they are serving. The sites of boarding facilities will not be located immediately adjacent to cemeteries, business centres, railway stations, taxi ranks, sewage treatment plants and community hostels, nor bordering on busy roads, unless adequate preventative measures are taken to ensure the safety of the learners.
The location of the boarding facilities should ensure easy accessibility to roads, sewage lines, basic services etc. Identification of the site for a boarding facility: School sites will have a name board, indicating the name and contact details of the school, its Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates and whether the school is a fee-charging or no-fee school. Where the boarding facility is separated from the school, a separate name board will be required. Sporting facilities: Learners must share sporting facilities with the school.
The specifications/guidelines for sporting facilities will be the same as contemplated in the Guidelines for Planning for Public School Infrastructure. Basic services Sanitation: All boarding facilities will be provided with adequate sanitation facilities that promote health and hygiene standards that comply with the National Building Regulations and Water Service Act, 1997 (Act No. 108 of 1997). The choice of appropriate sanitation technology may only be based on an assessment conducted on the most suitable sanitation technology.
Plain pit and bucket toilets will not be acceptable. The number of toilet seats, basins, showers, baths and urinals should be provided in accordance with the National Building Regulations: SABS 04000-1990. Provision should be made for people and learners with disabilities. Water: All boarding facilities will be provided with minimum/basic water supply as stipulated in Section 3 of the Water Service Act, 1997 (Act No. 108 of 1997). The choice of the appropriate water technology may only be based on an assessment conducted on the most suitable water technology.
No boarding facility will be allowed to function without running water. Electricity: All boarding facilities will be provided with some form of electricity in accordance with the National Building Regulations (NBR). In this case, the choice made will need to be an appropriate source of electricity. All boarding facilities should have generators as a contingency measure in cases of power failures. Connectivity: All boarding facilities will be provided with some form of connectivity (wired or wireless) for communication purposes.
The following communication tools will be provided: a public telephone, a facsimile machine, internet access, an intercom reticulation/public address system. Safety and security (of boarding facilities) A boarding facility will be provided with appropriate fencing around it and all outbuildings, to the height of 1. 8m. The buildings of a boarding facility will be provided with some form of security. The basic minimum will be burglar-proofing in all ground and easily accessible hostel spaces, as well as a security guard. The optimum level of provision will be an alarm system and closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras.
The final choice will depend on the availability of funding. Natural surveillance should be optimised by designing landscaping that minimises places hidden from view and all areas should be observable from inside the building. The buildings of a boarding facility will have a fire rating that conforms to regulations in accordance with the NBR. (This to be understood as the minimum time before partial collapse of the structural elements takes place. Fire extinguishers will be provided at a ratio of at least one for every 150m?.
The provision of fire extinguishers will conform to national, as well as international regulations on the provision, maintenance and replacement of such fire extinguishers. There should be visible signage indicating emergency exits in the buildings. Architectural Requirements -define the spaces that are required in a boarding facility to make it an enabling, supporting educational environment. Spaces are identified in terms of the activities they house and their size. Space size is defined in terms of minimum and optimum sizes. required in boarding facilities are: Bedrooms/dormitories.
These are areas where learners sleep or stay when they are not engaged in learning, studying and extramural activities. Staff quarters. Staff quarters are areas where the staff members responsible for the management of the facilities and for taking care of learners are housed. Hostel managers, matrons and support personnel occupy these spaces. Administration space. This is an office in the boarding facility for administration matters, such as the manager’s office. Lounge. This an area, perhaps situated in the reception area, which could be regarded as a waiting area for parents.
This space is used for different activities, which include preparation of food, cooking, food and crockery storage, a scullery and a control room for management purposes. Dining hall. This is a space where meals are served. Laundry. The laundry refers to an area where learners’ clothes and linen are washed, dried and ironed. The laundry comprises the washing area, the ironing area and a drying or hanging area. TV room. This is a room that is dedicated for boarders watching television (TV) during their leisure time, without disturbing others. Entertainment room.
This is a room in which learners can participate in other leisure activities, such as indoor sport, dancing, playing games etc. Computer cubicles. These are spaces that are designated for computer usage where there may be internet connections. Study area. This is an area that learners use to study in the evenings and over weekends in cases where there are no study areas in the dormitories. Parking spaces. Parking spaces are used by staff members and parents when they drop off and pick up learners. Ablution blocks. These refer to toilets spaces, showers, wash basins and baths. Pastoral care.
This space usually houses a sick-room and/or a room for a psychologist. Telephone booths. These refer to a cubicle or a room for public phones that should be located centrally, so as to be accessible to all boarders. Equipment Requirements -These requirements define the specific unit space in terms of specific equipment. They are: Bedrooms. A bedroom will comprise a single bed, a desk for studying, a chair and a wardrobe/locker. Bathrooms. A bathroom will comprise a basin, a bench, a toilet, a bath and/or a shower. Nutrition centre. It will be equipped with stoves, tables, basins, shelves, cupboards, a sink, freezers, etc. Laundry.
A laundry will comprise basins, washing machines, tumble dryers, washing lines and ironing boards. TV room. A TV room will contain a TV, a digital video disc (DVD) player and chairs. Entertainment area. The entertainment area will contain indoor sporting equipment, such as table tennis tables and chairs. Computer cubicle. It houses tables, chairs and plugs to which computers may be connected. Pastoral care spaces. These will comprise – beds in sick-rooms, a table and chairs and a telephone (for emergency purposes). Administrative spaces. These include the offices of the hostel manager, the supervisors and the administrator.
They will have a central printer, a facsimile, a photocopier, a computer, office desks, chairs, telephones and filing cabinets. Telephone space. This space will contain public telephones, telephone directories and chairs. Staff quarters. These will comprise cupboards, fitted kitchens and bathrooms. Staff will provide the beds and bedding themselves. Design specifications -These specifications define the minimum design criteria that will determine the design of the buildings. These will be used by architects, physical planners and relevant stakeholders during the design phase of projects.
Design specifications will describe criteria that should be considered for each space, as indicated in the architectural specifications. The application and consideration of all criteria should be in line with NBR. Design criteria should be guided by the following principles: Design principles Accessibility: Designers should provide facilities that can be used by all people without disregarding the needs of people and learners with disabilities. Flexibility: Designers should consider the fact that future renovations, additions and expansions of the facilities are likely to take place.
Aesthetics: Aesthetics refers to the physical appearance and image of building elements and spaces, as well as the integrated design process. Cost-effectiveness: This refers to selecting building elements on the basis of life-cycle costs (weighing options during concepts, design development and value engineering), as well as basic cost estimations and budget control. Operational: This refers to functional programming, namely spatial needs and requirements, system performance, as well as durability and the efficient maintenance of building elements.
Productive: This refers to the occupants’ wellbeing, both physical and psychological comfort, including building elements such as air distribution, lighting, workspaces, systems and technology. Secure/Safe: Facilities should provide safety from natural disasters and accidental or deliberate acts of man by means of the use of particular construction material, as well as attention to standard designs, building management and risk assessment. Areas of concern include fire protection, disaster management, controlling hazardous substances, as well as other ways of promoting personal and material security.
Sustainable: This refers to the environmental performance of building elements and strategies. It also refers to the choice of materials, energy saving/sustainable systems, and siting – i. e. management in an environmentally friendly way, as well as design that reduces environmental impact. Fitness for purpose: This refers to facilities that support the learners’ educational needs, serve as an enabler for the well-being of learners, are built to optimise investments and are operated and maintained efficiently.
Energy saving designs: This refers to the design, material and technology used should lead to a reduction in energy and resource consumption and create improved human and natural environment. Design criteria Lighting -All spaces will be provided with a means of lighting that will enable people to use them without compromising the health and safety of users – in accordance with the NBR. Lighting includes artificial and natural lighting that is required in all types of spaces for effectiveness. This is measured in lux. Lighting requirements will be as follows:
Artificial illumination (the amount of light falling on a surface) should be a minimum of 200 lux. The lighting level above any given surface must be controllable (i. e. variable between 200 and 700 lux). The area within which a given level cannot be varied (the light zone) shall not be larger than 50m?. Individual light sources, capable of providing 150 to 500 lux, must be available for specific activities. (Power outlets should be available at least every 10m?. ) Appropriate fire doors, in accordance with building regulations, must be installed in boarding facilities.
Emergency lighting must illuminate passages and exit routes. Acoustics -Acoustics refers to the noise level within a set space. The following are the requirements for noise levels: An “open space” should not be smaller than 300m?. In relation to the size of the space, the extent and quality of the absorbing surfaces must be designed with the objective of providing a general background noise of 40 to 50 decibels (with the space fully occupied). Reverberation (echo) must be dealt with in relation to the volume of the space and the quality of the surrounding surfaces.
Spaces that are too “noisy” must be avoided and a rather low reverberation time achieved, namely approximately 0. 6 to 0. 7 seconds. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) -All spaces will be provided with heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) that meet that the demand of the building and, at the same time, are necessary for the comfort of occupants and users. Designers should consider an integrated HVAC system that will cost less, use less energy and will run more efficiently over time. Visual comfort
Visual comfort refers to the acceptable level at which all occupants or users of a building are in the position to perform visual tasks without compromising the visual level of people suffering visual impairment. Designers should create an environment that provides visual comfort for all users. Integration of natural and artificial lighting should be taken into consideration to ensure maximum level of visual comfort. The following are recommended: Take the amount of daylight entering each room into account when designing the artificial lighting system for each room. Provide controls that turn off lights when sufficient daylight exists.
Balance the quantity and quality of light in each room. Thermal comfort -Thermal comfort refers to the temperature of, and relative humidity in a room. It is affected by heat conduction, convection, radiation and evaporative heat loss. The design of the building should allow the temperature and humidity levels to remain within the comfort zone at all points in an occupied space. The standard amount of insulation required to keep a resting person in a windless room is 21. 1 °C. Signage -There should be signage boards, indicating different types of buildings, directions, parking bays, emergency exits, etc.