Basic Psychology Theories

Published: 2021-10-08 23:55:11
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Category: Behaviorism

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Jessica Esau PSY325: Statistics for Behavioral and Social Sciences Basic Psychology Theories Craig Derror 3/22/09 In this paper I am going to discuss the basic fundamentals when it comes to psychology and some other known essential key points. The five main categories of theories are Neuroscience, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Humanistic. Each category contains a very large history scaling all the way back to when Hippocrates or Aristotle roamed the earth. Once the category has been established I will give an example of how it relates to a specific event, then my opinion vs. he subject. After the main categorical perspectives have been discussed I will break off into how the scientific process works and some essential understanding of normal vs. abnormal psychology. Finally I will then conclude the essay with my own breakdown of my thoughts and beliefs on the subject. The first Perspective is called Neuroscience which basically views behavior from a perspective of biological functioning. What I mean by that is Neuroscience devotes its views to a scientific study of the nervous system.
It’s pretty much also viewed as a form of biological study on the brain and mind. It breaks down how we are our father’s son or mother’s daughter and how we are a replica of our parent’s image. The genes that were handed down before us lay a foundation for us to live and act by. If one’s parent were to have a hereditary disease then it would state the disease would have a high probability of being passed onto the child. Some of the fields that helped us understand neuroscience more was molecular biology, neural networks, and computational neuroscience.
Molecular biology is the study of molecules under the interactions inside the various systems within a cell including how DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis cooperate. Neural networks are the branches of biological neurons with the body. Lastly computational neuroscience combines all sorts of research in order to test hypotheses that can be directly confirmed by a biological experiment. The next perspective I’m going to discuss is called the psychodynamic perspective which had strong ties to a man called Sigmund Freud. Sigmund was an Austrian eurologist and psychologist labeled to be the father of psychoanalysis but also greatly known for the Id, Ego, and Superego which were structural forms of the mind. He has such an impact on the development of psychology that other non followers named themselves against his beliefs and called themselves neo Freudians. This view is based on unconscious thoughts that sit in our minds and influence our everyday decisions. The inner forces create conflicts and persuade us in ways we never knew existed. Understanding this view can help people in many ways such as depression or other mental disorders.
In the depression scenario the psychologist would try to determine the issue at hand whether it’s stress from work, life, marriage, or even learning to cope with certain problems. Another focus that psychoanalysis can be used for is determining why a person is prejudice or aggressive towards an individual. Someone cannot say truthfully that they hate a person simply because of their skin without having some form of influence placed upon them from another being. The behavioral perspective I find to be one of the more interesting views.
When you quote a man named John B. Watson he said “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years. Which makes me wonder if he were to do that how true would it become? Several movies have made characters based on theories such as that, a couple that stand out in the top of my head would be “Star Wars” and “Soldier”. Both containing soldiers that were born and raised to be supreme killers amongst others, simply because that’s what they were trained to do. Another that rings a bell is a movie called “Trading Places” with Dan Aykroyd and Eddie Murphy, Eddie Murphy plays a bum who lives off of the rich and commits a random act of thievery every now and then.
While Dan Aykroyd plays a very successful stockbroker who lives in a mansion and works the stock market very well. Well when Aykroyd’s rich boss decides to have a bet with his brother over a dollar whether anybody regardless of breeding can, in the right environment, become an upper-crust gentleman. In exchange you have one person who becomes the rich successful business man from the poor and the rich becomes a poor stealing bum on the streets. The overall message the movie sent did help make a point by disregarding a person’s genetics for the environmental background which made who they were in the end.
The main influence on behavior perspective was by Burrhus Frederic Skinner. Skinner the great American psychologist was mostly famous for his operant conditioning chamber which is a laboratory apparatus used to experiment with the behaviors of animals leading to radical behaviorism. Radical behaviorism proposes that all organisms’ actions are determined and not free and very anti theoretical. Cognitive perspective is one that relates closest to home. It’s based on how environmental persuasion dominates a person feelings and emotions.
When the atmosphere surrounding a persons life turns hostile it can consecutively change the individuals personality to cruel and malicious. But when they receive care and compassion it would encourage empathy and for them to become loving. When I think about how it changes behavior I think of my friends life, for instance he has never lived in any one state longer then five years majority at two or three which I believe in turn made him disconnected from people, Whenever he moved to a new location he would tell himself why bother making friends here he’s only going to move soon and loose them.
Which throughout all his existence he’s remained in contact with only one person aside from his family; he lives five states away and really seems to be his only means of friendship in the last 5 years. Cognitive Psychology’s thought examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. It focus’s on how people understand, diagnose, and solve problems concerning themselves. More so often solution to Cognitive Psychology is found through insight or a feeling of understanding within ones self. Ulric Neisser was the first person to conjure up the term Cognitive Psychology in a book he wrote.
He said “the term cognition refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations, given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon. But although Cognitive Psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view.
Other viewpoints are equally legitimate and necessary. Dynamic psychology, which begins with motives rather than with sensory input, is a case in point. Instead of asking how a man’s actions and experiences result from what he saw, remembered, or believed, the Dynamic Psychologist asks how they follow from the subject’s goals, needs, or instincts. ” Humanistic psychology is the last of the basic perspectives that I’m going to discuss in this paper. This perspective is based on people’s development, the process they go through throughout their life, and how much control is placed upon our behavior.
The two most important psychologist’s placement category of thinking is Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow who were labeled as the founders of humanistic approach of psychology. Carl Rogers is very well known for his client centered therapy which is a type of counseling in psychotherapy in the 1940’s and 50’s. The reason why client centered therapy also called person centered therapy was so important is because it was a therapy that established an ideal personal relationship with patients’ to assist in realization that they can help themselves.
Eventually it turned into a very popular and effective treatment and is predominantly used by psychologists and counselors involved in psychotherapy. Abraham Maslow the other founding father on Humanistic Psychology is more famous for his proposal of a hierarchy of human needs. Maslow’s studies contained such popular people as Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt. Instead of subjects that were actually mentally ill. He stated “the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs typically categorized into a pyramid with five levels contains self-actualization, esteem, love/longing, safety, and psychological needs. These categories are placed as needs in which a person’s life is labeled as achievable, moving from one category to the other until all has been reached then to be reprioritized. I believe that this pyramid is very well important because it truly states what we all need. At first I was rather skeptical thinking I should replace a few when reading them but the more I thought about it and read it.
It became clear that all of these are appropriate for my own needs. All five of the Basic Psychological Defectives are very important in each and every way. In order to truly understand psychology, you must learn all of these aspects not just limiting your views down and not creating a narrow minded perspective. Neuroscience will lay your biological foundation for the rest of the views providing a deep look to how the brain functions physically. Such as, the nervous system functions with your head thinking the action to your fingers doing the action creating a well oiled machine called the human body.
This well oiled machine operating biologically contains many characteristics that several animals share such as, reproduction, the need for food, water, and rest. When we lack in one of these needs we go on a quest to search it out and fulfill the required desire. Neuroscience is something that you cannot ignore its built more on the lines of a psychical status rather than mental. The Psychodynamic perspective is placed in the back of the mind into areas we cannot control they are briefly influenced by our subconscious desires.
An example of these subconscious desires is something quite frequently referred to as a Freudian slip. The Freudian slip is where someone speaks a word on accident than retracts it to be replaced by another. The word in which they first spoke of was actually referencing their true thoughts. I believe to be fully functional based on our Psychodynamic thoughts would be truly animalistic. In theory while the animals do not live by socialization and classes for which they must uphold they simply live by doing what they were created for. Behavioralism influence is based on the environment.
If someone was to grow up different than anyone else they would be a conflicting sample to the rule seeing as to how the individual is a product of the environment. Based on that theory it’s the explanatory reasoning as to why cultures still exist. When someone grows up in a culture they are taught to conform to be exactly like everyone else from their own learning views and what is expected of them. If this perspective did not exist I believe that culture would not exist because the two go hand in hand when a child is learning and growing.
The Cognitive Perspective is quite similar to behavioralism except the cognitive specimen interrupts the world differently from others. They take the way the world is and sees it differently than others do. For example, a party who ventured into the jungle comes upon a leopard it releases its fierce growl then retreats. Those individuals who just witnessed this event will eventually forget it in their short term memory but it has been placed in their long term memory. Although, upon sleeping quite a ways down the road in life they hear the same growl again but this time it has been processed from their long term memory.
The reason why they were able to recall the animal noise was due to the Cognitive functioning. The Humanistic Perspective really does affect everyone we all want to be famous, rich, and loved. The quest for these labels is on everyone’s to do list and is typically placed upon us for what we actually strive for. We all wish to be in control of our lives and not let it be predestined consequently; the struggle to be number one is always a constant battle amongst ourselves and everyone else around us. Therefore, without these five basic perspectives the human body would be lost amongst itself without a purpose to follow.

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