The main purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between gender differences ,academic performance and depression among Uog students. Gender Gender is the range of physical, mental, and behavioral characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, the term may refer to biological sex (i. e. the state of being male, female or intersex), sex-based social structures (including gender roles and other social roles), or gender identity.
According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, “Gender is cultural and is the term to use when referring to women and men as social groups. Sex is biological; use it when the biological distinction is predominant. ” And according to the World Health Organization, “Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
” Depression Depression is a mental illness in which a person has feelings of sadness, instability, loneliness, hopelessness, worthlessness, and guilt. Depression is a common mental disorder and can be successfully treated. Signs and symptoms include Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelings Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness Irritability, restlessness Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex Fatigue and decreased energy
Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping Overeating, or appetite loss Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment. Gender and Depression When asked about symptoms of depression, women are more likely to admit to such features than men, a difference usually put down to women being more open and men being more likely to use denial. Similarly, women are more prepared to seek help than men for their depression.
A variety of biological, social, and psychological explanations for women’s increased vulnerability to depression also has been evaluated. Research examining hormonal influences has received more attention than biological factors but both have produced inconclusive results and presently do not appear to account for the gender difference in rates (cf. reviews by McGrath et al. , 1990; Rice et al. , 1984; Kornstein, 1997). Academic performance An academic performance is how well someone does during their academics.
This means, how well they did with school and all the activities that go along with it. workplace is critical for these individuals, this relationship has not been adequately investigated. Depression is a common disorder that impacts an individual’s ability to perform life activities, including those required by the workplace. Academic performance can be viewed as a direct parallel to workforce performance, with students belonging to a unique set of individuals whose ability to perform can be measured on criteria applied by an observer and by self-report.
While the prevalence of depression for this group is high and preparation for entry into the workplace is critical for these individuals, this relationship has not been adequately investigated. Many factors affect academic achievement. One of them is depression. Depression has a high prevalence and relationship with both memory and academic achievement. Depression indices are: persistent sadness, discouragement, loss of self-worth and interest in daily activities. True depression in teens is often difficult to diagnose because normal adolescent behavior is marked by both up and down moods.
These moods may alternate over a period of hours or days. Depression has an effect on academic achievement. Research has indicated that depressed mood is negatively related to academic achievement. Objectives The objectives of the present study was to assess the relationship between age, gender and academc performance with depression among University students. Hypothesis Following hypothesis were formulated for present study: Gender and academic performance has a positive effect on depression.
If depression will increases acdamic perfomance will decrease. Variables Age, Gender and Acdademic performance were independet variables and Depression was dependent variable in present study. Operational definition The World Health Organization, defines depression as: “Depression is a common mental disorder, characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness and poor concentration. ”(By Martin) Conceptual definition
“In this study conceptual definition of Depression is total score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. ” Literature Review In the following paragraphs, there is a review of the literature pertaining to Depression, the hypothesized predictors of Depression and Academic performance ,the predicted outcomes of Depression, and the relationship between Academic performance and Depession. Robert (2008) conduct the study on the relationship between depressed mood and academic performance (measured in terms of grade point average) in U. S. middle and high schools.
Utilizing data from AddHealth, the dissertation establishes Ordinary Least Squares, Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS), and individual and sibling fixed effect regressions that attempt to control for confounding factors, including student motivation, personality characteristics, and parental inputs that are unobserved but may influence both mental health and achievement. Study findings indicate that students who report feeling depressed do not perform as well academically as non-depressed students. Additionally, the degree of GPA impact increases with the severity of reported depression.
Students reporting either depressed feelings “most or all of the time” – or symptoms consistent with major depression suffer GPA reductions of 0. 06 to 0. 84 grade points. In addition, middle schoolers and certain minority groups are hardest hit by depression, and persistent depression has a negative impact on grades. Dana & Ahmed conducta study on Depressive Symptoms and Academic Performance of North Carolina College Students. the total number of student was 1,280 and used regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group.
the result of this study was regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. A study conduct by Alketa, Steven & Clayton(2005) was on the relationship between depression and the academic performance of undergraduate students. Data regarding academics, health and productivity for students from Western Michigan University were obtained from the University’s Registrar’s Office, the campus Health Center and a survey delivered to the students.
The primary outcomes of interest were the student’s grade point average (GPA), an objective, observer generated measure of academic productivity, and the students’ self-reported academic performance. the result indicate the Diagnosed depression was associated with a 0. 49 point, or half a letter grade, decrease in student GPA, Depressed students reported a pattern of increasing interference of depression symptoms with academic performance. With respect to the study on Evaluating the Relationship between Gender, Age, Depression and Academic Performance among Adolescents by Busari, A. O. (2012) the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between age, depression and academic performance among adolescents.
The study was carried out among 1200 students (600 male and 600 female) in the age range 15-19 years. The instrument used for data collection was the Beck depression Inventory (21 item BDI). The analysis of data used correlation coefficient and t-test. The results showed that 26. 5% of the boys and 30. 7% of the girls were depressed and that depression and academic performance were significantly correlated, r = -0. 24, p? 0. 000. Also, based on results of the present study, age and academic performance were significantly correlated (r = 0. 25, p? 0. 000).
In addition there was significant difference of academic performance between male and female, (t (1) = -5. 51, p = 0. 000). Nancy, Bonnie & Erin(2004) was conduct a study on Gender differences and risk factors for depression in adolescence The current study used longitudinal data (N? 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada’s National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and 1998).
Results showed that although there was not a statistically significant increase in depressive symptoms in early adolescence, there was a robust gender difference in the levels of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of MDE, with girls more affected than boys. Mirowsky J & Ross CE. (1992) Was conduct a study on Age and depression and the aim of this study was to find out the the relationship between age and depression is analyzed, looking for effects of maturity, decline, life-cycle stage, survival, and historical trend.
The data are from a 1990 sample of 2,031 U.S. adults and a 1985 sample of 809 Illinois adults. The results show that depression reaches its lowest level in the middle aged, at about age 45. The fall of depression in early adulthood and rise in late life mostly reflects life-cycle gains and losses in marriage, employment, and economic well-being. Depression reaches its highest level in adults 80 years old or older, because physical dysfunction and low personal control add to personal and status losses. Malaise from poor health does not create a spurious rise of measured depression in late adulthood.
However, some of the differences among age groups in depression reflect higher education in younger generations, and some reflect different rates of survival across demographic groups that also vary in their levels of depression. Mary Kay O’Neil & William J. Lancee (1985) conducted a study on Sex differences in depressed university students and in this study author select Depressed males and females from a consecutive sample of students attending a university psychiatric service (N=183) and a sample from the general student population (n=55) were compared to determine why more females (ratio 2?
1) seek help for depression. It was found that this sex difference was due neither to differential prevalence of depression nor to differences in symptom expression or social behavior, but rather to contrasting attitudes toward emotional problems and psychiatric help. Women recognize physical concomitants of depression as indicative of emotional problems and more readily accept the need for psychiatric help. Men appear not to connect physical symptoms with emotional difficulties.
In this chapter, the researcher’s major purpose was to present background information on the dependent variable,Depression and to present background information on the three independent variables. The three independent variables are: age, gender and Academic performance. In varying degrees, all of the independent variables, were reported in the literature as having positive correlations with depression. Rationale of the study The purpose of this study was to find out age and gender difference in depression and academic performance with relation to depression among students of University of Gujrat.
By exploring these variables, it is hoped to add to the body of comprehension about the relationship between age, gender differences and academic performance with depression. The present study can be important addition in literature, concerning gender differences in depression. Conducting study on age, gender differences and academic performance related depression in Pakistani society can contribute in the field of basic research. Present study can be helpful in further researches .
This study is also helpful for the reader to understand the relationship between age, gender differences and academic performance with relation to depression among university students. It can also support other researches and generate useful knowledge for students belonging to the discipline of psychology. There are very little research attempts to explore the relationship between age, gender differences and academic performance with relation to depression of students in Gujrat. So this study is unique because it examines the age, gender differences and academic performance relted to depression among students of University of Gujrat.
Chapter II Method Method In the present study it is a multi-independent sample design . it is a independent sample design. 100 students from university of Gujrat were selected as a sample of B. S( 2nd and 8th ) semester . A standardized instrtrument was used for data collection. That is the Depression Anxiety Stress scale. Sample The present study consisted on the population from university of Gujrat. B. B. A and Sociology department were included for collection of data. Convenient sampling was used to select 100 student from university of Gujrat among them 50 were male and 50 were female.
There age range from 18 to 26. There qualification was B. S(hons). Depression Anxiety Stress Scale The DASS is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS was constructed not merely as another set of scales to measure conventionally defined emotional states, but to further the process of defining, understanding, and measuring the ubiquitous and clinically significant emotional states usually described as depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS should thus meet the requirements of both researchers and scientist-professional clinicians.
DASS scales contains 14 items, divided into subscales of 2-5 items with similar content. The Depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest/involvement, anhedonia, and inertia. (Lovibond, S. H. & Lovibond, P. F. 1993 ). Demographic sheet Some demographic variables were included in the present research those were: Age, Gender, Department, CGPA, Semester, Father’s education and Mother’s education.
Procedure First step in the present study was to select the population of students from University of Gujrat and select sample from that population. second, researcher build rapport with students and ask them to fill the questionnaire carefully and respond to each item honestly. Some instructions were given to the respondents before questionnaire handed them over. The instructions were; the whole information will be confidential and only used for the research purpose, it was requested to show serious and careful attitude toward responding in questionnaire, and provide only required information. Researchers face some difficult in collecting data because students were showing non-serious attitude toward giving responses on questionnaire.
After completed the data collection researcher thanked to all the respondents who show their cooperation to fill the questionnaire. Chapter III Results Results The aim of the present study was to explore the Age, Gender differences and Academic performance with relation to Depression among students of University of Gujrat. A standardized scale was used to measure the Depression among males and females students of University of Gujrat. Linear Regression was used for measuring Age, Gender differences and Academic performance with relation to Depression among University students.